17 terms

Topic 1 Earth & Maps

Earth and Maps
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oblate speheroid
an object that is larger around the equator and flattened at the poles. Earth is slightly an oblate spheroid
diameter
the straight line distance from one edge of a circle through the center to the opposite side of the circle
circumference
The distance around a circle or sphere
Polaris
is the North star. Polaris' altitude equals the lattitude of the observer.
Lithosphere
the solid, outermost layer of the Earth which includes the crust and the top portion of the Mantle
Hydrosphere
the liquid bodies that rest on the lithosphere, like oceans, lakes and rivers
Atmosphere
the layer of gases that surround the Earth
Latitude
an imaginary line around the Earth that is parallel to the equator and measures angular distance North or South from the equator.
Longitude
an imaginary line that runs from pole to pole and measures angular distance East or West from the Prime Meridian.
Prime Meridian
has a longitude value of 0º and is the starting point for all other longitude lines.
Equator
has a latitude value of 0º and is the starting point for all other latitude lines.
isoline
is any line that conects equal values on a map and some specific examples are isotherms, isobars and contour lines
contour line
is an isoline that connects equal elevations above sea level on a topographic map
Contour Map
(aka Topographic Map) is a map that shows elevations along with othe commonly shown features like roads and schools.
Contour Interval
is the amount of elevation between each contour line on a map. The most common are 10, 20, 25 and 50.
Topographic Profile
is a side view of a landscape that is usually created from a Topographic map
Gradient
is a calculation that show how certain values change over a certain distance. For example, with contour maps, gradient will calculate how steep a hill is.