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Ch10.5,11,12,13 -- Life Span Human Development 7th Edition
Life Span Human Development 7th Edition Intelligence and Creativity Sigelman and Rider
Terms in this set (155)
What is morality?
1. ability to experience pride when we do the right thing or guilt when we do the wrong thing 2. our ability to act to distinguish between right and wrong 3. our ability to act on this distinction. the "affective", or emotional, component consists of of the feelings that surround right or wrong actions. The "cognitive" component centers on how we conceptualize right and wrong and make decisions about how to behave, drawing on social cognitive skills such as role taking. The "behavioral" component reflects how we behave when, for example, we experience the temptation to cheat or are called upon to help a needy person.
What are 3 basic concepts of morality?
1. affective or emotional component- consisting of the feelings (pride, guilt, concern for others' feelings) that surround right or wrong actions and that motivate moral thoughts or actions 2. a cognitive component, centering on the way we conceptualize right or wrong and make decisions and reason about how to behave; this component involves social cognitive skills such as role taking 3. a behavioral component that reflects how we actually behave when we experience the temptation to cheat or are called upon to help a needy person.
Freud's "moral effect"psychoanalytic theory
1. generally we are motivated to avoid negative moral emotions and to seek positive ones by acting in moral ways. 2. Empathy - vicarious experiencing anothers feelings, is example of moral affect.
Kohlberg "moral reasoning" cognitive developmental theory
1. want to understand "how" we decide what to do, not what we decide or what we actually do. 2. what is the thinking process when we decide whether an act is right or wrong. 3. believes moral development progresses through a set of universal, invariant sequence of stages.
3 stages of moral reasoning and 2 substages. 1. PRECONVENTIONAL MORALITY rules are external. follow rules to avoid punishment and get rewards, self dominates- Stage 1 - punishment and obedience, an act is judged if you can get away with it, not if good or bad. Stage 2. instrumental hedonism - rules are followed if it's in your best interest to follow. CONVENTIONAL MORALITY has internalized more moral values, strives to obay ruls to win approval, others perspectives are considered and given consideration Stage 3 - Good boy or good girl morality - acts that help others are good, gaining approval of others through actions. Stage 4. Authority and social order maintaining morality - acts are good if they conform to social rules, interest of society. POST CONVENTIONAL MORALITY defines right or wrong in broad terms and principles of justice that have validity apart from of particular authority figures Stage 5 - morality of contract,indvidual rights and democratically accepted law - concern for individual rights and the general welfare of society, laws are valid if they have been democratically agreed upon. Stage 6 - morality of individual principles of conscience - concern for living up to self chosen, universally ethical moral principles, these principles apply regardless of the situation or context.
1. highest stages reflect a western ideal of justice centered on individual rights, making stage theory biased against people who live in non-western societies 2. a person must hold liberal values in order to be classified as a post conventional moral reasoner (oppose capital punishment, supporting civil disobedience in the name of human rights. 3. this theory is biased against women since his stages were based on interviews with males. Gilligan proposed another theory that illustrates a feminine point of view.
Gilligans care perspective on moral development
SELFISHNESS - focus on taking care of oneself and one individual survival. Transitional conflict occurs when a woman sees the conflict between her own needs and her responsibility for doing the "right thing" RESPONSIBILITY TO OTHERS focus on "doing the right by others" and if at all possible avoiding hurting them; acceptance by others is a primary concern. Transitional conflict occurs when a woman questions whether self sacrifice is right. "is it appropriate to hurt myself in order to avoid hurting others?" Concern begins to shift from being good to seeking truth. RESPONSIBILITY TO SELF AND OTHERS - focus is not hurting anyone, including oneself; looking after the welfare of all persons.
Bandura social learning and moral behavior
primarily interested in the behavioral component of morality - what we "actually do" when faced with a moral dilemma. moral behavior is learned through observational learning and reinforcement and punishment principles. They consider moral behavior to be strongly influences by the nature of the specific situations in which people find themselves. They emphasize the importance of cognition that help people adhere to more standards and gain control over their emotions and feel capable of regulating their moral behavior.
factors that promote growth in moral reasoning
1. preconventional reasoning involves egocentric perspective of moral issues. in order to move to conventional reasoning your need to be able to take other people's perspective into consideration. need empathy too. to achieve post conventional reasoning your must have formal operational thought to reason about abstract principles.
thinking about perceptions, thoughts, emotions, motives and behaviors of self, other people, groups and even whole social systems.
false belief task
assesses the understanding that people can hold incorrect beliefs and that these beliefs, even though incorrect, can influence their behavior. some research shows infants as young as 15 months understand that people can hold false beliefs
theory of mind
the understanding that people have mental states such as desires, beliefs and intentions and that these mental states guide (or cause, if you like) their behavior AKA mind reading skills. 85% of 4 year olds of normal intelligence and older children with down syndrome passed the false belief task. 80% with autism failed. age 2 theory of mind starts to develop. acquiring requires a normal human brain but also experiences interacting with others. children with siblings acquire theory of mind sooner. parents contribute to theory of mind development, culture influences as well. children who have mastered theory of mind tasks have more advanced social skills and better social adjustment.
early signs of theory of mind
joint attention - starting around 9 months. infant and caregiver looking at same object. in first months infants understand people have intentions, set goals and achieve them. pretend play between 1 and 2 show primitive understanding difference between pretense adn reality. Imitation of other people in the first year reveals an ability to mentally represent their actions. Emotional understanding is evidenced by comforting a playmate who is crying.
henry wellman - age 2 toddlers talk about what they want and explain their own behavior and that of others in terms of wants and desires. goldfish and broccoli 18 months gave broccoli.
belief desire psychology
henry wellman - by age 4 children normally appreciate that people do what they do because they desire certain things and because they believe that certain actions will help then fulfill their desires.
giacomo rizzolatti neurons that are activated both when we perform an action and when we observe someone else perform the same action. implicated not only in imitation but also language, empathy and theory of mind.
functional magnetic resonance imaging
fMRI - used to determine which areas of the brain are active while a person completes a task. Saxe and Kanwisher found that areas of adults brains that respond strongly to during false belief tasks do not respond when people are asked questions about "false photographs"
social perspective taking skills
AKA role taking skills, the ability to adopt another person's perspective and understand her thoughts and feelings in relation to your own. This is an example of theory of mind in action. thinking of moral issues from different points of view,
contributed greatly to understanding role taking abilities. consistent with piaget. kids 3-6 tend to respond egocentrically to stories like this, assuming that others share their point of view. kids 8-10, concrete operations abilities solidify they appreciate two people can have different points of view. adolescents, formal operational stage age 12 become capable of mentally judging multiple personalities, even the "generalized other"
emotion related to matters of right or wrong.
positive social acts, such as helping or sharing that reflect concern for the welfare of others.
piaget during the preschool years, children show little awareness or understanding of rules and cannot be considered moral beings
piaget kids 6-10 take rules seriously, believing they are handed down by parents and other authority figures and are sacred and unalterable
piaget kids 10 or 11 enter final stage of moral development they begin to appreciate rules are agreements between individuals, that can be changed through a consensus. in judging actions they pay more attention to whether the person's intentions were good or bad than to the consequences of his act.
Argues that humans have an evolved genetic makeup that predisposes them not only to behave antisocially but also to emphasize with fellow humans and to behave pro socially and morally.
Moral cognition is linked to moral action through self regulatory mechanisms that involve monitoring and evaluating our own actions,
Disapproving of ourselves when we contemplate doing wrong and approving of ourselves when we behave responsibly or humanely.
Bandura devised mechanisms that allow us to avoid condemning ourselves whewe engage in immoral behavior, even. Though we know the difference between bright and wrong. Store clerk stealing.
Lacking n morality
Empathy and prosocial behavior
Infants become capable of a truer form of empathy that motivates helping and other forms of moral behavior. Toddlers begin to understand that someone else's distress is different than their own.
More than half of the 13 to 15 month olds engaged in at least one act of prosocial behavior, helping, sharing, expressing concern, comforting
Are infants judging us?
Research suggests that a capacity to evaluate other people's social behavior may be evident so early in life because it is part of our evolutionary heritage. It may have evolved because it helps us distinguish between individuals.
3 year olds listened to stories about a boy throwing a ball to a playmate. Motive was described as good or bd and the consequences of his act we positive or negative. Even young child can base moral judgements on both a persons intention and the consequences of his act.
Observed that young children distinguish sharply between different kinds of rules. Moral rules and social conventional rules
Turiel standards that focus on the welfare and basic rights of individuals. Rules against hitting, stealing,, lying, harming others or violating their rights.
Social conventional rules
Turiel Standards determined by social consensus that tell us what is appropriate in particular social setting. Rules of social etiquette, rules of games and school rulers like not eating food in class or using the restroom.
Children as young as 2 regaRd moral transgressions such as hitting, stealing, or refusing to share as more serious and deserving of punishment than social conventional violations.
Believes empathy is a key motivator of moral behavior and that the key task in moral socialization is to foster empathy. Three approaches to discipline, love withdrawal, power assertion and induction. Winning formula is blend of frequent inductions, occasional power assertions and a lot of affection.
Hoffman Withholding affection, attention or approval after a child misbehaves, creating anxiety by threatening a loss of reinforcement from parents
Hoffman Using power to threaten, chastise,
Administer spanking, taking away privileges and so on, using punishment
Hoffman Explaining to a child why the
Behavior is wrong and should be changed by emphasizing how it affects other people
Social information processing model of aggressive behavior
Dodge Encoding of cues, taking in information. Interpretation of cues, making sense of this information and deciding what caused the ore persons behavior. Clarification of goals, deciding what to achieve in the situation. response search,
Thinking of possible actions to achieve the goal. Response decision, weighing pros and cons of these alternative actions.
Behavioral enactment, doing something. Aggressive youth, if tripped, would focus on cues suggesting it was hostile.infer it was hostile, make goal to retaliate, generate few option, most aggressive. See advantages in responding Aggressively and then behave aggressively.
Coercive family environment
Patterson Family members are locked in power struggles. Parents learn through negative reinforcements that they can top their children misbehavior, temporarily, by threatening, yelling and hitting. Kids learn, thro negative reinforcements, they can get parents to lay off by whining, tantrums, ignoring requests, being difficult.
Gene environment interaction
Kids with genetic predispositions may become anti social if they also grow up in a dysfunctiona family and receive poor parenting or worse are physically abused.
Gene environment correlation
Kid who inherit a genetic predisposition to become aggressive may actually evoke the coercive parenting that Patterson and colleagues find breeds aggression.
Evocative gene environment correltaion
This effect is evident even when aggression prone kids grow up with adoptive parents rather then with biological parents because these kids bring out negativity in adoptive parents.
patterns of behavior and traits that define how a female or male should act in a particular society.
gender role norms
society's expectation or standards concerning what males and females "should" be like
these involve nurturance and empathy, being a mother, teacher, nurse. we typically expect females to be in these roles.
these involve being a protector and provider, such as being the bread winner, doctor, lawyer. we typically expect males to be in these roles
gender role stereotypes
over generalized and largely inaccurate beliefs about what males and females "are" like; expectations or beliefs that individuals within a given culture holds about the behaviors that are characteristic of males and females.
a process by which children become aware that they are biological males or females and acquire the motives, values and patterns of behavior that a given culture considers appropriate for members of the biological sex aka gender role development
gender typed behavior
behaving in "gender appropriate" ways
an awareness that one is either boy or girl, acquired by the time child is 2 1/2 - 3 years old
all the features that a society associates with or considers appropriate for being a man or woman.
an orientation that emphasizes connectedness to others and includes traits of emotionality and sensitivity to others
an orientation toward individual action and achievement that emphasizes traits of dominance, independence, assertiveness and competitiveness.
gender similarities hypothesis
states males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables.
11 ways males and females differ
1. females sometimes display greater verbal abilities than males, but on most verbal tasks the difference is small. 2. Males outperform females on many test of spatial ability. 3. males and females perform similarly on most standardized math tests and females obtain slightly higher math grades in the classroom, this was not the case historically. 4. Females display greater memory ability than boys. 5. Males engage in more physical and verbal aggression than females, starting as early as 17 months. 6. Boys are more physically active. 7. Boys are more developmentally vulnerable. 8. Girls are more tactful and cooperative, as opposed to being more forceful and demanding, and are more compliant with requests from adults. 9. Both males and females report females are more nurturant and empathetic. 10. Females are more prone to develop anxiety disorders, depression and phobias. Males are more likely to display antisocial behavior and drug and alcohol abuse. 11. Males use the computers more than females and express greater confidence in their computer skills.
social role hypothesis
alice eagly - differences in the roles that women and men play in society do a lot to create and maintain gender stereotypes.
gender roles and the infant
3-8 months males spend more time looking are truck and females spend more time looking at dolls., 3-4 months can distinguish male and female faces. by 24 months the look longer at males and females performing gender INconsistent activities. by 18 months seem to have an emerging understanding that they are either like other males or like other females, even if they can verbalize it.
awareness that you are either boy or girl, by 2.5 - 3 years old
separating into boys and gilrs peer groups and interacting far more often with their own sex than the other sex
gender differences may be magnified by hormonal changes associated with puberty and increased pressure to conform to gender roles. - largely related to peer influence and the growing importance of dating - social pressure to conform to gender stereotypes doesn't have to be real, just the perception can lead to gender intensification.
gender role development theory by Money and Ehrhardt. calls attention to the ways in which biological events influence the development of boys and girls.prenatal hormones. suggest that early biological development influences how people react to a child and that these social reactions then have much to do with children assuming gender roles.
girls that were prenatally exposed to excess androgens - were recognized as genetic females and underwent surgery to alter genitals and were raised as girls. 37% described as homo or bi sexual. performed better than other females on test of spatial ability.
Who is Robert Sapolsky
biologist that argued that being in an aggressive situation may raise testosterone levels.
Is gender role development influenced by biology, social experience and individual behavior?
how do infant males and females differ?
males - more active, longer and heavier, more irritable, less neurologically mature. Females are more sensitive to touch, mature physically 2-21/2 years faster, show speedier skeletal development
gender role development and the toddler
increased awareness of gender differences, prefer gender typed (appropriate) toys and activities, will actively avoid opposite sex toys (esp boys), greater latitude for cross sex play for girls.
gender role development and elementary school years
children play with primarily same sex friends, gender segregation or sex cleavage
how do room decorations differ among boys and girls
boys are characterized "toys of the world" girls are characterized as "toys of the home"
4 influences in gender role development
1. parents influence us by activities, clothes, toys and room decorations. - most toys bought by parents at christmas are gender neutral - kids request 75% gender typed toys. 2. the child influences by what they pursue 3. biology 4. media influences - age 5 and udner watch 25.5 hrs week. shows on tv still conform to gender stereotypes.
age 5-7, children understand that their biological sex will stay the same, before this age they believed if you dress different it can change. from book - demonstrated by very few 3-5 year olds, about half of 6-7 year olds and majority of 8-9 year olds.
social learning theory and gender development
children learn masculine and feminine identities and preferences in 2 ways. 1. through differential reinforcement where children are rewarded for sex appropriate behaviors and punished for behaviors considered more appropriate for members of the opposite sex. 2. through observational learning where children adopt the attitudes and behaviors of same sex models.
cognitive theory and gender development
cognitive theorists emphasize the cognitive aspects of gender role development, stating that as children acquire an understanding of gender, they "teach" themselves to be girls or boys.
cognitive theorist - children first understand they are boys or girls and then they actively seek same sex models and a range of information about how to act like a boy or girl.
cognitive theory - age 4 - they learn gender identity is stable over year - boys become men girls become woman
age 5-7 gender is stable across all situations
what is gender schema theory
martin and halverson - cognitive threory -believe children self socialization starts as soon as child acquires gender identity at 2 or 3. kohlberg said it starts at older age 5-7.
organized sets of beliefs and expectations about males and females that influence the kinds of information they will attend to and remember. "is this for boys or girls" answer dictates if they reject or embrace
by a balancing or blending of both agentic and communal traits
what percent of adults are androgynous
1/3 are. 1/3 are traditionally gender typed
are androgynous adults more flexible?
bem yes. also have higher self esteem, and perceived as better adjusted than their traditionally gender typed peers.
david gutmann - hypothesis that gender roles and gender related traits in adulthood are shaped by the requirement that mothers and fathers adopt different roles to raise children successfully. men are agentic women are communal.
instead of giving up traits as you as, you add to them and become more balanced
what age to boys and girls first feel sexual attraction?
age 10 - herdt and mcclintock - due to maturation of adrenal glands. comes before puberty and is critical in sexual development. adrenal glands mature around 6-8 and produce low amounts of androgens.
organized combination of attributes, motives, values and behaviors unique to each individuals
3 aspects to personality
1.dispostional traits (extraversion or introversion), 2. characteristic adaptions (ways people adapt to their roles and environment) 3. narrative identities ( "life stories" to give ourselves and identity and make sense of our lives)
you "perception", positive or negative, of your unique attributes and traits as a person "what I am" "your perception of how athletic you are"
your overall evaluations of your worth, high or low, based on all the positive and negative self-perceptions that make up your self concept. "how good am I" "how you feel about how athletic you are"
an overall sense of who you are, where you are heading and how you fit into society
Freud - psychoanalytic approach to personality
was formed in first 5 years. anxieties arise from harsh parenting and unfavorable early experiences and leave a permanent mark. 3 parts to personality 1. selfish id, 2. rational ego, 3. moralistic superego. emphasized importance of biology. suggested universal stages of psychosexual development. his theory ends at sexual maturity.
Erikson - psychoanalytic approach to personality
emphasis on social influences such as peers, teachers and cultures. possibilities of overcoming effects of early childhood trauma. developed a stage theory that covered the life-span. includes crisis oriented stages that result from maturational forces combined with social elements.
erikson 8 stages
0-1 trust vs. mistrust Can I trust others 1-3 autonomy vs. shame and doubt Can I act on my own? 3-6 initiative vs. guilt Can I carry out my plans successfully? 6-12 industry vs. inferiority Am I competent compared to others, social comparisons 12-20 identity vs. role confusion Who am I, really? 20-40 intimacy vs. isolation Am I ready for a relationship? 40-65 generativity vs. stagnation Have I left my mark? 65+ integrity vs. despair In the end, has my life been meaningful.
Trait Theory and personality
based on psychometric approach and guided the development of intelligence test. personality is set of depositional trait dimensions or continua along with people can differ. personality traits are relatively enduring, similar to psychoanalytic. different from psychoanalytic because don't believe personality unfolds in series of stages.
Five personality dimensions - 1. openness to experience, conscientiousness, extra version, agreeableness, neuroticism
social learning approach to personality
bandura & mischel reject universal stage. they emphasize people change with environment. personality boils down to set of behavioral tendencies shaped by interactions with other people in specific social situations. different situation, different personality. importance of consequences of behaviors and models. in general, personality development is a very individual process whose direction depends upon each person's social experiences and social environments.
infant personality milestones
1-2- months- able differentiate self from world. 6 months-discover properties of thier physical selves. 6-12 months-realize they and companion are separate beings.18 months- recognize themselves visually as distinct individuals.18-24months- infants show clear evidence of self-recognition and are aware of who they are.
the ability to recognize oneself in the mirror or photograph. ig you put a red dot on nose older infants will touch their own nose as they see themselves separate from the mirror. 15-24 months see baby in the mirror as another baby.
18-24 months - classifying oneself into social categories based on age, sex and other visible characteristics. "like me" "not like me"
when is self awareness achieved?
18-24 months. toddlers who recognize themselves in teh mirror are better able to do these 3 things: talk about themselves and assert their will. experience self conscious emotions such as pride or embarrassment. coordinate their own perspectives with those of other people-communicate with playmate by imitating actions
early, genetically based tendencies to respond in predictable ways to events that serve as the building blocks of personality. - used to describe an infants personality.
what are the 3 temperaments for infants?
thomas and chess are the first to attempt to characterize infants temperaments. gathered information about 9 dimensions of infant behavior. most infants fit in three categories 1. 40% easy temperaments- happy and content, regular feedings, like strangers. 2. 10% difficult temperament- active, irritable, react negatively to changes of routine, cry frequently. become impulsive adolescents and adults who don't get along well with others 3. 15% slow to warm temperament- slow to adapt but don't react as intensely as difficult temperaments.
5 dimensions of infant behavior
thomas chess - 1. typical mood 2. regularity or predictability of biological functions such as feeding and sleeping habits. 3. tendency to approach or withdraw from new stimuli, 4. intensity of emotional reactions 5 adaptability to new experiences and changes in routine. see page 2 on chapter 11 powerpoint.
kagan tendency to be extremely shy, restrained and distressed in response to unfamiliar people and situations. this is biologically rooted. high heart rates and strong brain responses in reaction to unfamiliar stimuli.
three dimensions of temperament
mary rothbart - 1st two are evident in infancy, last in toddlerhood or early childhood. 1. Surgency/extraversion - tendency to actively and energetically approach new experiences in a emotionally positive way (rather then being inhibited and withdrawn. 2. negative affectivity - the tendency to sad, fearful, easily frustrated and irritable (as opposed to laid back and adaptable) 3. effortful control - the ability to focus and shift attention when desired, control ones' behavior and plan a course of action and regulate or suppress one's emotions.
goodness of fit
thomas and chess - when child temperament and environment match well. if high strung kid then with laid back parents
what age to kids start to use pronouns?
age 2. i, me, my, mine
preschool emerging self concept would describe
physical characteristics, physical activities and accomplishments and preferences. self conceptions become more sophisticated around age 8 and are capable of social comparison.
using information about how they compare with other individuals to characterize and evaluate themselves. the preschooler who says she can hit a baseball becomes the elementary school child who says she can hit the ball better that her teammates.
who is Susan harter?
she established self perception scales for use across the life span and has found that self esteem becomes more differentiated or multidimensional with age.
preschooler and self esteem
harter - distinguish only two broad aspects of self esteem - their competence and their personal and social adequacy. elementary school - 5 aspects of self esteem - scholastic competence, social acceptance, behavioral conduct, athletic competence, and physical appearance.
what we think we should be. with age the gap between the real self and ideal self increases.
is self esteem and inheritable trait?
yes. you can also experience you are competent or get more positive social feedback.
who seem to be have most self esteem?
children who are securely attached to parents who are warm and democratic.
behavior inhibition in preschool predicts what?
low extraversion in middle school and negative affectivity is related later to neuroticism.
do self descriptions become less physical as you age?
yes. they become more psychological. they go from "i have brown eyes" to "i am lonely"
do self portraits become less concrete and more abstract as you age?
do adolescents have a more differentiated self concept ?
yes. social self reflect large social group, acceptance by large peer group, acceptance by close friends and acceptance by romantic partners.
do adolescents become more self aware?
dispositions assumed to be a relatively consistent across situations and time (sociability, independence, anxiety)
visible or tangible features of yourself and includes your possessions, physical activities and accomplishments. "i have brown hair, i am married, i have 2 children" young children describe themselves this way.
your characteristics as far as interactions with others "i am outgoing, i think i am funny, i am cooperative, i like to talk a lot" older children and adolescents describe themselves this way.
your "inner"self, your disposition, beliefs, attitudes and values " i am a hard worker, i'm conscientious, analytic, i am not very impulsive" adolescents and adults use all three "selves" to describe themselves.
looking glass self
our understanding of self is reflection of how other people respond to us, that is our self concepts are the images cast by a social mirror.
3 temperaments by buss and plomin
1. emotionality - is baby emotionally reactive and easily and intensely irritated by events...or not. 2. activity - is baby highly active...or sluggish. 3. sociability - is baby sociable, interested in and responsive to people...or is he standoffish? 4.
by 3rd grade children differentiate which 5 aspects of self worth?
1. scholastic competence 2. Social acceptance 3. behavioral conduct 4. athletic competence 5. musical appearance
6 reasons children have high self esteem
1. are more competent and socially attractive to others 2. receive more positive social feedback 3. have parents who are loving. 4. have parents who frequently communicate approval and acceptance 5. have parents who are likely to help their children think positively about themselves 6. have parents who enforce clearly stated rules of behavior while allowing their children to express their opinions and participate openly in decision making
how do adolescents self concepts differ from the child. 5 ways
1. self descriptions become less physical and more psychological 2. self descriptions become less concrete and more abstract 3. they are more self aware 4. more differentiated self concept 5. they have a more integrated. coherent self portrait.
how do adults self concepts differ from the adolescent.
they have a generally good, stable self image by 1. adjusting their ideal self to be more inline with their real self 2. they evaluate themselves with different standards, their goals and standards change as they age 3. the people with whom they compare themselves to changes.
what is levinson stage theory of adult development?
the unfolding of an individual life structure - an overall pattern of life that reflects the person's priorities and relationships with other people and the larger society.
mid life crisis
levinson - 40-45 a questioning of one's entire life structure and raising unsettling issues about where one has been ans where one is going. time of inner struggles and disturbing realizations.
our drive to succeed
children who attribute success to internal and stable causes and blame their failures on external factors beyond their control. They don't blame themselves. adaptive and healthy
learned helpless orientation
do not experience the pride and self esteem that come from viewing themselves capable. they attribute success to external factors and failures to internal factors. maladative and unhealthy
age 7 , unrealistic optimists
children this age tend think they can succeed on almost any task. even after repeated poor performances, young children continue to think they have high ability and will do well. older children tend to become helpless. as children age tehy tend to see "ability" as a fixed trait.
also called "learning goals". the view that ability is a changeable quality if they work hard. it encourages children to aim to learn new things so that they can improve abilities.
elementary children aim to prove their ability rather than improve it and seek to be judged smart rather than dumb.
what are 3 differences in mastery and performance goals
1. children who focus on mastery goals are not disheartened at a bad grade on test but a child focused on performance goals will be becuase the grade was the goal not the process of learning. it is possible to be motivated by both. 2. performance = ability is fixed. mastery = ability is changeable, 3. performance = superficial learning for test, mastery = deep level processing of material
4 causal attributions to feedback on "performance"
1.effort = high or low effort of studying, 2. luck = good or bad, 3. task difficulty = high or low "it was too hard", 4. ability = high or low "i'm dumb"
internal locus of control
"I" had control on the occurence
external locus of control
"something" or "someone" "outside" of me had control
ability is seen as internal and stable cause for success or failure
effort is seen as as internal and unstable, meaning whether you try hard is up to you and how hard you try varies from task to task
task difficulty is external and stable cause since every task is "stable" in terms of its level of difficulty
luck is external and unstable (changeable) cause
children who are "mastery oriented" feel what in regards to ability, task, luck and effort
1. they take credit for their successes "i did well because i am smart" and makes them believe they can have success in the furture. 2 see their failures as something they couldn't do much about "the task was really hard" (external/stable) or due to the fact that they just didn't put in enough effort "i didn't work hard enough" (internal but "un"stable) something they have control over and can change next time. these children believe they are in the "driver's seat" of they education. has high self esteem, thrive on challenges
children who are "performance oriented" feel what in regards to ability, task, luck and effort
1. they don't take credit for successes,a. "i got lucky" (external/unstable). child feels like success is not likely to occur again b. "the test was easy" (external/stable) not my fault i did well. c. "i only did well because i studied my butt off" (internal/unstable) it was the child's doing but who knows if it will happen again. 2. take "too much credit" for their failures, a. I failed because I suck at this", "because i'm stupid" (internal/stable), believe a dark cloud is following them around and there's nothing they can do to prevent failure.
what can parents to encourage "mastery" instead of "performance" orientation and "achievement motivation"?
infants = provide approriate sensory stimulation, be responsive, build secure attachment. children = stress and reinforce independence, self reliance, encourage them to do things on their own, emphasize the importance of doing things "well" meeting high standards and performance, get involved with their education, provide a cognitively stimulating home environment (have reading material in the home, engage in intellectual discussion, attend lectures/cultural events/museums and hold high expectations for their education and success.
a healthier, more adaptive way of thinking about intelligence or ability. contrast with entity theory - see chart on printout
unhealthy, maladaptive perspective on intelligence and ability. contrast with incremental theory - see chart on printout
younger children are normally mastery or performance oriented?
mastery and incremental theorist. you are more likely to become a entity theorists as you age.
do schools promote mastery or performance orientation?
with grades and competition present children are more likely to be achieve performance goals rather than learning goals.
the process of changing from performance to mastery orientation. emphasizing learning goals, focus on what you have learned not on the grade, provides smaller hurdles to overcome to build self esteem, providing praise and reinforcement, offer constructive criticism where appropriate ( encourage that some error are made by everyone).
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