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Social stratification

one of the two components, together with agricultural surplus.


The downtown heart of a central city

Informal economy

economic activity thast is neither taxed nor monitored by a government

urban realm

A spatial generalization of the large, late-twentieth-century city in the United States. It is shown to be a widely dispersed, multicentered metropolis consisting of increasingly independent zones or realms, each focused on its own suburban downtown; the only exception is the shrunken central realm, which is focused on the Central Business District (CBD).


Illegal practice of inducing homeowners to sell their properties by telling them that a certain people of a certain race, national origin or religion are moving into the area

shanty towns

Unplanned slum development on the margins of cities, dominated by crude dwellings and shelters made mostly of scrap wood, iron, and even pieces of cardboard.


first civilization located between the Tigris & Eurphrates Rivers in present day Iraq; term means "land between the rivers;" Sumerian culture

haung he

china's second largest river, sometimes called "chinas sorrow" because of devastating floods and muddy yellow silt; also 4th urban hearth

urban morphology

the study of the physical form and structure of urban places


Illegal practice of refusing to make mortgage loans or issue insurance policies in specific areas for reasons other than economic qualifications of applicants

rank-size rule

A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.


the internal physical attributes of a place, including its absolute location, its spatial character and physical setting.

first urban revolution

The innovation of the city, which occurred independently in five separate hearths.


defind as the economic reinstastion in exisiting real estate


external locational attribute; relative location

Primary industrial region

the result of mapped industrial concentrations (West and Central Europe, Eastern and North America, Russia, Ukraine, and East Asia)

webster's model

model according to which the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by minimization of three critical expences: labor, agglomeration, and transportation


allows all kinds of work even entire factories and research facilities to be shifted ffrom the united states to places like china and india


cost that change directly with amount produced

global division

a structural arrangement in which domestic divisions are given worldwide responsibility for product groups


goods arrive when needed for production, use, or sale rather than sitting in storage

friction of distance

the increase in time and cost that usually comes with increasing distance

break-of-bulk point

A location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another.


Centers or nodes of high-technology research and activity around which a high-technology corridor is sometimes established.

intermodal connection

These could be refered to as ways of passage for example infrastructure. Where many routes connect like a big junction can be refered to as intermodal connections

off shore

out at sea, away from the land.


Form of mass production in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly.

post fordist

World economic system characterized by a more flexible set of production practices in which goods are not mass produced; instead, production has been accelerated and dispersed around the globe by multinational companies that shift production, outsourcing it around the world and bringing places closer together in time and space than would have been imaginable at the beginning of the 20th century


A process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities. The term often refers to manufacturing plants and businesses that benefit from close proximity because they share skilled-labor pools and technological and financial amenities.


process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment


With respect to a country, making progress in technology, production, and socioeconomic welfare.

formal economy

The legal economy that is taxed and monitored by a government and is included in a government's Gross National Product; as opposed to an informal economy


groups that work to cultivate a global perspective; focus on social, environmental, and economic issues while not being politically aligned

world system theory

economic and political connections that tie the world's countries together,originated by wallerstine


the use of very small loans to small groups of individuals, often women, to stimulate economic development

neo- colonialism

control by a powerful country of its former colonies (or other less developed countries) by economic pressures


the total value of all goods and services produced by a country

rostows ladder of development

model of economic development 5 steps

export processing

zones established by many countries in the periphiary or semi periphiary where they offer favorable taxes, regalatory annd trade arrangment to attract foreign trade and investment



structuralist theory

A general term for a model of economic development that treats economic disparities among countries or regions as the result of historically derived power relations within the global economic system.


zones in northern mexico with factory supplying manufactured goods to the u.s market

dependency theory

a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones


A trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that encourages free trade between these North American countries.

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