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individual empire named for the Franks that began to develop after the Treaty of Verdun in 843
Philip II (Philip Augustus)
king who made the French monarchy stronger than any other single noble in France; accompanied Richard I in the crusade of kings
Philip II's grandson who is remembered for improving French laws in ways that appealed to the people but also increased his own power
French king who quarreled with Pope Boniface VIII over whether the king could tax the clergy without the pope's consent; arrested Boniface VIII and established the Estates-General
pope who quarreled with Philip IV over whether the king could tax the clergy without the pope's consent; was arrested by Philip and died shortly afterward
House of Valois
line of kings that claimed the throne of France following the Capetian line, creating an immediate excuse for the Hundred Years' War
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