Unit 24 Medications That Affect the Respiratory System
Terms in this set (45)
The common cold - coryza - is the most frequent infection in all age group in the United States.
It is caused by the rhinovirus, one of a species of picornaviruses.
There are more than 200 rhinoviruses that can infect the nose and throat and cause the common cold.
In children, aspirin should not be used as an antipyretic because of the risk of Reye's syndrome.
Pertussis - whooping cough - is a very contagious disease caused by a type of bacteria called bordetella pertussis.
It is a serious infection that spreads easily from person to person.
Pertussis is on the rise in the United States and affects adults as well as children.
The infection causes coughing spells so severe that it can be hard to breathe, eat, or sleep.
It can lead to cracked ribs, pneumonia, or hospitalization.
Antihistamines - Uses
The primary use for antihistamine agents is the treatment of allergy symptoms that have resulted from the release of histamine.
They are effective in the treatment of perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis, contact dermatitis, urticaria, pruritus, for amelioration of allergic reactions to
substances such as blood, plasma, insect stings, plant poisons, and as an adjunctive therapy during anaphylactic shock.
Some antihistamines are used for the prevention and control of motion sickness and others are used in combination cold remedies to decrease mucus secretion and at bedtime for sedation.
cetirizine - Zyrtec
clemastine fumarate - Tavist, Tavist-1
diphenhydramine HCl - Benadryl
fexofenadine - Allegra
loratadine - Claritin
Decongestants - CAUTION:
1. If recommended dosage is exceeded, nervousness, dizziness, sleeplessness, rapid pulse, or high blood pressure may occur.
2. Medication should not be taken for more than seven days.
If symptoms do not improve or fever occurs, patient should see a physician.
3. Patients with heart disease, hypertension, thyroid disease, glaucoma, diabetes, or prostatic hyperplasia should not take decongestants without the permission of their physician.
4. Patients who are pregnant or nursing babies should not take decongestants without the permission of their physician.
Decongestants - Adverse Reactions
Reactions include rebound nasal congestion, dryness and stinging of the mucosa, sneezing, light-headedness, headache, anxiety, palpitations, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and anorexia.
oxymetazoline HCl - Afrin
pseudoephedrine HCl - Sudafed
Decongestants Patient Teaching
Educate patients that:
long-term use of nasal sprays or solutions increases the risk of sensitization, which often causes a rebound effect or an increase in symptoms.
decongestants should not be taken if antihypertensive agents, MAO inhibitors, or tricyclic antidepressants are part of the medication regimen.
codeine, codeine phosphate, codeine sulfate
Expectorants and Mucolytics
An expectorant is an agent that stimulates and decreases the thickness of respiratory tract secretions.
Mucolytics are drugs that reduce the viscosity of respiratory tract fluids.
The actions of these medications are theoretically useful in treating coughs, because such actions should facilitate removal of irritants and phlegm.
Despite studies that show some agents to be effective, conclusive evidence of the effectiveness of these medications is yet to be reported.
Expectorants - Uses
Use an expectorant to help loosen phlegm - mucus - and thin bronchial secretions to make cough more productive.
Expectorants - Special Considerations
Saturated solution of potassium iodide - SSKI - should be diluted in water or fruit juice before administering.
guaifenesin - Robitussin
saturated solution of potassium iodide - SSKI
Mucolytics - Special Consideration
Mucolytics may be used as an antidote for acetaminophen overdose.
Mucolytics - Drugs
acetylcysteine - Mucomyst
Bronchodilators - Patients Teaching
Xanthine Bronchodilators. Educate patients:
that cola drinks, coffee, tea, and chocolate contain xanthine and they should not be consumed while on medication.
Sympathomimetic Bronchodilators Drugs
isoproterenol HCL - Isuprel
metaproterenol sulfate - Alupent
Xanthine Bronchodilators Drugs
theophylline - Theo-24
Montelukast Sodium - Singulair - Dosage and Route
The dosage for pediatric patients 6 to 14 years of age is one 5-mg chewable tablet daily to be taken in the evening.
Used for long-term treatment of bronchial spasm
Atrovent - ipratropium bromide - is an anticholinergic agent prescribed for long-term treatment of bronchial spasms - wheezing - associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, including chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
Its an anti-inflammatory agent that are used to reduce the inflammation in the inhalation tract.
Glucocorticoids are anti-inflammatory agents that are chemically related to the naturally occurring hormone cortisone.
There are many uses for corticosteroids, but inhalational forms are used in the treatment of bronchial asthma, and in seasonal or perennial allergic conditions when other forms of treatment are not effective.
Examples of inhalation via metered-dose inhaler steroids are flunisolide - Aerobid and Nasalide - and triamcinolone acetonide - Azmacort.
Flonase - fluticasone propionate - and Rhinocort - budesonide - are two examples of anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid nasal medications that are used for the treatment of allergic rhinitis.
Flonase is a nasal spray, indicated for patients 4 years of age and older, and provides 24-hour relief of nasal allergy symptoms.
Rhinocort is prescribed as a nasal inhaler.
The usual recommended starting dose for adults and children 6 years of age and older is 256 micrograms a day, either as two sprays in each nostril twice a day, morning and evening, or as four spray in each nostril once a day in the morning.
Rhinocort is not recommended for use in children with nasal irritation not due to allergies.
The most common adverse reactions are increased coughing, irritation of nasal passages, epistaxis, and sore throat.
Other examples of Glucocorticoids are the asthamcort, decodant, and pulmacort.
triamcinolone acetonide - Azmacort
Teberculosis - Treatment
Treatment of TB requires long-term drug therapy - 6 to 9 months - often utilizing a regimen that includes a combination of antituberculosis agents.
The use of multiple drugs is indicated in all but a few active cases, because any large population of Mycobacterium tuberculosis will have naturally occurring mutants that are resistant to each of the drugs administered.
The primary drug regimen for active tuberculosis combines the drugs isoniazid - INH, - rifampin - RIF, - and ethambutol - EMB.
Other drugs that are also used are streptomycin - SM - and pyrazinamide - PZA.
Diet and rest are also important aspects of treatment for this disease.
It is recommended that patients receive a liver function test before and while taking antituberculosis drugs.
rifampin - Rifadin
Adverse Reactions: Gastrointestinal disturbances, flulike symptoms, orange-tinged body fluids, fever, headache
oxfloxacin - Floxin
Adverse Reactions: Abdominal cramps, nausea, diarrhea