71 terms

T.E.D. - Unit 5 - Content & Vocabulary

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First Law of Thermodynamics
is a version of the law of conservation of energy, adapted for thermodynamic systems. The law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system is constant; energy can be transformed from one form to another, but cannot be created or destroyed.

example:
Energy is stored in a battery in the form of chemical energy. The chemical energy is then converted to
electrical energy to run an electric motor. The electric motor changes the electrical energy into mechanical
energy.
Types of Systems Engineering
-Power & Energy Systems Engineering
-Communication Systems Engineering
-Transportation Systems Engineering
-Construction (Structural) Systems Engineering
-Manufacturing Systems Engineering
Power and energy systems (Electrical engineering)
-research emphasizes all aspects of electrical energy, innovation in energy generation and distribution, grid intelligence, renewable resources, electric transportation, and efficient devices and buildings.
-Research projects address machines and systems for the conversion, delivery, and use of energy in electrical form. -Electrical energy continues to be the foundation of the modern economy.
-The growth of solar energy, wind energy, and other resources, combined with trends such as electric and hybrid vehicles and airplanes, will a have profound impact on global society.
nuclear energy
-the energy released during nuclear fission or fusion, especially when used to generate electricity
-When atoms are split they release a lot of thermal energy. -The reaction must be controlled or a reactor can
overheat causing a meltdown.
-A reactor meltdown is a concern related
a non-renewable resource
Nuclear energy from uranium is:
Radiant energy
is the energy of electromagnetic radiation. The SI unit of radiant energy is the joule (J). The quantity of radiant energy may be calculated by integrating radiant flux (or power) with respect to time.

example:
the microwaves inside the cooking area are an
Forms of energy
Mechanical energy
is the sum of potential energy and kinetic energy. It is the energy associated with the motion and position of an object.

example:
you experiment with different size bowling balls. you notices that even though you throw the different
balls at the same speed, that the larger balls tend to cause the pins to move farther and faster when hit
Chemical energy
is the potential of a chemical substance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction to transform other chemical substances.

Examples include:
-batteries, light bulbs, cells, bombs and more
Thermal energy
is the energy a substance or system has related to its temperature, i.e., the energy of moving or vibrating molecules. Atoms and molecules, the smallest particles of any substance, are always in motion.

example
-You need to boil water and have two containers. The first container holds 20 ounces of water and the second
holds 70 ounces. It takes longer for the 70 ounces to boil because it requires more thermal energy
Electrical energy
is the energy newly derived from electrical potential energy. When loosely used to describe energy absorbed or delivered by an electrical circuit

example
-A hydroelectric dam uses flowing water to spin a turbine which in turn spins a generator which produces
electricity. The input of the hydroelectric dam is the mechanical energy in the flowing water. What type of
energy is the output of the dam?
Solar energy
-is radiant light and heat from the sun harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, solar photovoltaic, solar thermal energy, solar architecture and artificial photosynthesis
- considered a renewable energy resource?
Nuclear to Thermal to Mechanical Energy
Many of today's largest aircraft carrier's use heavy atoms as fuel, and the atoms are split in a fission reactor.
This reaction generates heat which is used to produce steam. The steam then spins a turbine and thus the
propeller. Which of the following shows the progression of energy through this system?
Wind turbines (windmill)
-a device that converts kinetic energy from the wind into electrical power
-provide a clean, renewable source of energy
Hydroelectricity
is the term referring to electricity generated by hydro-power; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water.
flowing water
hydroelectric power plants source of energy
hydro electric plant
electrical load
is an electrical component or portion of a circuit that consumes electric power
homes and business which use the electricity
For a coal burning power plant, home & businesses are considered to be the load
electric motor
In an electric vehicle the motor is considered the be the load
power source
produces power in electric power circuits

example
battery or generator
Transportation Systems engineering
-are the building blocks of modern society.
-Efficient and safe movement of information, people, goods, and services ensures a thriving economy and such mobility improves quality of life.
-affect the environment through operations, construction, facility maintenance, as well as through the travel behaviors that they encourage.
-The study of transportation therefore must not only focus on efficient and safe design and operations but also on the link between travel behavior, urban form, and environmental quality.
Grain Elevator
transportation system designed to move harvested grain up into silos or grain bins
agriculture
system produces, processes, and distributes food, fiber, fuel, chemical, and other useful products
Air
mode of transportation that is preferred if you need to travel a long distance as quickly as possible
Soybeans uses
have many uses, from food to fuel and even lubricants. Before the soybeans can be converted into
useful products they must be cleaned, dried, and cooled
agricultural transportation technologies
are utilized in moving products from their natural occurring elements to consumers

example
-Grain Elevator, Combine and Conveyors
Construction (Structural Systems) engineering
-is the systematic process of erecting structures to meet human needs and desires
-Structural engineering work to ensure that these structures are safe, functional, durable, and economical.
- refers to load-resisting sub-system of a structure. The structural system transfers loads through interconnected structural components or members.
compression strength
is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to reduce size. It can be measured by plotting applied force against deformation in a testing machine.
tensile strength
is the maximum stress that a material can withstand while being stretched or pulled before failing or breaking.
compression strength vs tensile strength
example
Concrete is exceptionally high in compression strength but relativity weak in Tensile strength,
because it can easily be pulled apart
Educate
you create a video teaching others to perform new dance moves and put it on a popular
video website. What is the purpose of the videos?
Communication Systems
...
Communication
Technologies that include inputs, processes, and outputs associated with sending and receiving information
machine to machine communication
example
Dillon has auto-pay setup on his electricity bill. On the payment due date the amount of the bill is
automatically drafted from Dillon's bank account and deposited in the account of his local electric company.
The auto-pay is an example of what type of communication?
human to machine communication
example
Mr. Anderson has decided to ride the Amtrak train from North Carolina to Washington DC. He orders his
tickets online and pays with a gift card he received as a present. When he arrives at the depot he goes up to a
ticket machine and types in his confirmation number and he is dispensed a train ticket. What type of
communication was Mr. Anderson engaged in at the train depot?
-human to machine communicationterm-35
example
Amy is a pilot for a large company that is designing a new fuel efficient jet aircraft. As her company finishes
a new design Amy spends hours flying the plane using an aircraft simulator. In the simulator Amy can
take-off, fly, and land the aircraft virtually. Amy's interaction with the simulator is what type of
human to machine, machine to machine
Mason has a new Wifi enabled thermostat, which allows him to adjust and monitor his heating and cooling
system remotely. One day Mason realizes he left the heat running at his house and uses his smart phone to
turn the system off. What type of communication has Mason engaged in?
--human to machine communication
Jackie is at a fast food restaurant and is surprised to find a machine with touch screen not only takes your
order but also receives your payment. The new ordering system is an example of what type of
communication?
machine to human communication
example
Michael sets his alarm on his cell phone to ring at 6:45am so he can get ready for school. The next morning
the alarm rings loudly and Michael gets out of bed. The morning alarm awakening him is an example of
what type of communication?
-machine to machine communication
example
A GPS system consists of a network of satellites in orbit and a ground based receiver to determine its
position. The GPS satellites and receiver use what type of communication?
Persuade designers to apply for a job
DetroitAve, a game company, posts a recruitment ad on a social media website where graphic designers
share and critique work. DetroitAve's advertisement is an example of which type of communication purpose?
Non-verbal
While riding in a taxi, Fernando notices a large red 8 sided sign. Even though Fernando does not speak or
read the local language he knows that this sign means stop. The sign has communicated to him using what
means?
Closed-loop communication systems
inputs, processes, outputs, and feedback
the input
the music at the radio station
Output
A new email in your inbox represents which part of the communication process for that message?

example
printer
Encoding
When a person talks into a telephone, the microphone converts the sound waves into electrical signals.
What part of the communication system is the microphone doing?
-Encoding
When Cindy types a message using her phone on-screen keyboard, she is performing what part of the
communication system?
Speaker
A small band gets a few of their family and friends together for a live concert. Which of the following devices
would be considered to be the decoder?
The receiver is damaged
The family dog accidently hit Tyrone's radio and broke off the antenna. What has happened to the radio?
Store the message for later retrieval
You are typing a paper and the class is about to end. Since you need to continue working on the paper later,
what is the next step in the communication system?
Preparing the site
A general contrator is preparing to build a new single family home. This particular location has several
large rocks and small trees that will interfere with the construction of the home. Which part of the
construction process should the contractor be concerned with at this time?
Finishing the exterior
A new grocery store is being built. At this time the structure is enclosed and the utilites have been installed.
What would be the next step in the construction process?
Volume and flow rates
What scientific principle would a plumber need to know when designing and installing plumbing in new
construction?
Ohm's law
What scientific principle would an electrictian need to know when designing and installing wiring in new
construction?
Insulated Concrete Forms
Which construction method consists of interlocking foam or plastic forms that are filled with concrete?
Earthship
Which construction method would be best for a home that meets the following criteria? 1) Uses local,
natural, or recycled materal, 2) Places an emphasis on solar heating and cooling, 3) Will be "off-the-grid"
(minimizing reliance on public utilities).
examples of processes and procedures used in construction
-Availability of resources
- Scientific concepts
-Mathematical calculations
-Tensile
Carbon fiber is exceptionally high in ______________________ strength, but relativity weak in compression
strength, because it can not be easily pulled apart.
Composite
Fiberglass is a combination of fiber and resin. This combination would be an example of what type of
material?
Ceramic
.When a space craft reenters the atmosphere, friction causes an intense amount of heat on the outer skin.
What heat resistant material would be good to protect the spacecraft while reentering?
Fatigue Strength
The ability of a material to resist various kinds of rapidly changing stresses is known as?
Trade-off.
When selecting a material for use in a product, each material has advantages and disadvantages. One must
view the qualities of each material and make compromises as they design the final product. This
compromise is known as a
Metal
A computer processor can become extremely hot and must be cooled. A heat sink is placed on top of the
processor to extract its heat. What material should the heat sink be made from?
properties of metal
-Can be polished to lustrous finish
-Malleable
-Good Conductor of electricity
ceramics
-glass
- tungsten carbide
-clay
Thermoplastic
Since 2 liter plastic bottles can be melted and reshaped they are an example of what type of plastic?
The splitting of the atoms
In a nuclear fission reaction what is considered to be the process?
Sankey Diagram
A typical gasoline engine converts gasoline into exhaust, heat, and useful mechanical power. Which type of
graphic would visualize the change of energy in an easy to read manner?
Manufacturing Systems Engineering
work as part of a team to design, install, monitor and develop manufacturing equipment and assembly lines in factories.
Industrial engineering
is a branch of engineering which deals with the optimization of complex processes or systems. It is concerned with the development, improvement, and implementation of integrated systems of people, money, knowledge, information, equipment, energy, materials, analysis and synthesis, as well as the mathematical, physical and social sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering design to specify, predict, and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems or processes
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