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Anth 201 FINAL
Terms in this set (109)
What started the beginnings of social hierarchy?
What type of social organization has large scale ag, redistributive economy, labor specialization, early monumental construction?
How did chiefdoms organize labor and decision-making beyond the household level?
regional integration of sites, ranked social hierarchies with inherited status
How was ritual used in early chiefdoms?
as an integrative mechanism
Where is Stonehenge located?
Salisbury Plain, England
When was Stonehenge built?
What are some of the proposed purposes of Stonehenge?
prehistoric observatory, ritual
What are some pieces of evidence for social complexity at Stonehenge?
organization of labor, burial contexts
Did Stonehenge carry the same meaning throughout its history?
Where are some of the sites of the earliest monumental construction?
Goblekli Tepe, Jericho, Olmec
Where were the Olmec's ritual centers?
San Lorenzo, La Venta
What are some of the first pieces of evidence of Olmec complexity?
stone heads and earthen pyramids
How did the Olmec have a unifying artistic style?
they used goods traded from all over
What are some of the things that the Olmec did before other Mesoamerican cultures?
rubber ball game, bloodletting, writing
What are the common traits that define states/civilizations?
surplus food producers
large, dense pops
monumental public works/architecture
advanced science and math
What are the major rivers in the Mesopotamian region?
Tigris and Euphrates
What is important about Mesopotamian natural resources?
There aren't many other than fertile soil and clay
The climate of Mesopotamia makes what extra important for agriculture?
What was the first period of Mesopotamian history, defined by earliest temple architecture in the region?
What was the second period of Mesopotamian history, defined by earliest urban cities?
What evidence do we have for Mesopotamian administrative and craft specialization?
first cuneiform writing
What was the third Mesopotamian time period?
What was the most important archaelogical site from the Early Dynastic?
The Royal Tombs at Ur
What did the Royal Tombs at Ur tell us about the concentration of wealth and power?
it was strong, because there was many grave goods and sacrificial victims
What term refers to Mesopotamian monumental temples?
What is the most farmable part of the Nile River Valley?
What is unique about the geography of Egypt?
it is extremely circumscribed, and the farmlands are super defined
What was the main difference between how hieroglyphics and cuneiform were used?
cuneiform was used very administratively and hieroglyphics were moreso used in artistic and mortuary contexts
What was the main city in Upper Egypt during the Pre-Dynastic?
What was the tool used to deciper hieroglyphics?
the Rosetta Stone
What term refers to an Egyptian divine king whose ultimate source of powere was identification as a divinity?
What term refers to the Egyptian idea of order, justice, and truth?
How is ma'at represented in Egyptian society?
as the central concept to the king's role in society
Where was power centralized during the unification of upper and lower Egypt?
How was the unification of upper and lower Egypt represented in the Narmer palette?
red crown of upper
white crown of lower
cobra goddess of lower
vulture goddess of upper
What was the former capital of lower Egypt prior to the unification?
What was the first tomb built by the Egyptians?
What was the second period of Egyptian civilization?
What was the Old Kingdom know for?
Who was the first person to attempt a "step pyramid"
What is the most likely way the Great Pyramids were built?
What were the major rivers of the Harappan civilization?
Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra
What were the two major cities of the Harappan civilization?
Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa
What was typical of Harappan city planning?
elaborately planned but little monumental architecture. This was the only evidence of power
Where was the "great bath" located?
What was the Harappan sewer/water system like?
very well planned and executed
Was the Harappan script ever deciphered?
What did the Harappan writing system consist of?
stamps and seals
What did craft specialization and trade look like in Harappan civilization?
super specialized and lots of external and internal trade
What did social stratification look like in Harappan civilization?
little evidence for elites or differentiation
Where was the Mayan civilization located?
southern lowlands, Guatemala area
What was the main Mayan economic-farming technique?
Why did Mayan writing develop?
to record timing of ritual events in lives of rulers
What is an important statehood element that the Mayans had?
What were the large Mayan urban centers?
Tikal, Palenque, Copan
What were the 4 elements that contributed to Mayan collapse?
1. increased warfare
2. increased power of nobility
3. severe drought
4. not enough food
What are the cultural things that the Mayans adopted from the Olmec?
ball games and bloodletting
What city was located in the Valley of Mexico?
Who else traced their histories to Teotihuacan?
What is one of the largest structures ever found in the Americas with a similar footprint to the Great Pyramids of Giza?
the Pyramid of the Sun in Teotihuacan
What are the historical roots of the Aztec empire?
Olmec and Teotihuacan and Mexica and Aztlan
On what lake was Tenochtitlan located?
What was the main temple for the Aztecs in Tenochtitlan?
Did the Aztecs really use the wheel or any beasts of burden?
What was the main economy of the Aztecs?
chinampa agriculture and tribute demands
What was the written Aztec history that contained all of the tribute demands?
What were the main reasons behind Aztec ritual human sacrifice?
religious ideology and political intimidation
What term refers to political entities that conquer diverse groups of societies under a single ruler?
Where was Moche located?
north coast of Peru
What were the two Moche temples?
Huaca del Sol and Huaca de la Luna
What was the funerary evidence for hierarchy in Moche?
Lord of Sipan burials
What does Tiwantinsuyu mean?
"Land of the Four Quarters"
Who was responsible for creating the Inca empire?
What was the capital of the Inca Empire and what does it translate to?
What is the Incan language?
What is another major Incan city?
How did the Incans do agriculture?
What was the taxation system for the Incas?
What was the counting tool that the Inca used to keep track of inventories, population, agricultural production, people in armies, and maybe history and myths?
What was the main system of Inca transportation?
their road system with relay runners and storehouses
What were the three main factors that contributed to Inca expansion?
economic ( intensified ag, roads, split inheritence of emperor
How were the Inca conquered?
by 168 conquistadors
What are the three main factors related to Inca collapse?
Where were the Hohokam located?
What is the desert that the Hohokam were located in called?
the Sonoran Desert
What was important about Sonoran Desert agriculture?
they had great irrigation networks
Where was the "Great House" located and what was it?
Casa Grande, large residential site
Where were the Ancestral Puebloan (Anasazi) located?
What was Pueblo Bonito?
the largest great house in Chaco Canyon
What was the Pueblo Bonito architecture like?
huge scale, rooms located in circle around kivas
What term refers to subterranean rooms with religious significance?
What was likely the purpose of Pueblo Bonito?
What was the evidence for social inequality at Pueblo Bonito?
burials with lots of grave goods
What does the "Chacoan Network" mean?
they had lots of trade going on
Where were the Adena located?
When were the Adena around?
Early Woodland period
What were the significant elements of the Early Woodland period?
beginning of moundbuilding, elaborate burials, trade networks, art and metalworking
What were Adena and Hopewell mounds usually associated with ?
What did Adena and Hope ag. rely heavily upon?
domesticated LOCAL plants
What was the group that began during the Late Woodland period?
When was Cahokia around and where?
AD 1000 in St. Louis
What was the Cahokian architecture like?
Large mounds and a great plaza
What was the significance of the Cahokia site?
What is significant about Mound 72?
there is an elite buried alongside sacrificial victims
Where and when were Great Zimbabwe around?
sub-Saharan Africa around 1300 AD
What is significant about Great Zimbabwean architecture?
evidence for inequality
What was the role of long-distance trade in Great Zimbabwe?
getting African gold to other markets
What is the main temple at Minoan Crete?
What was the major catastophic event that ruined Crete?
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