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gene expression

the process of converting archived info into molecules that actually do things in the cell

knockout, null, loss of function alleles

alleles that do not function

one-gene, one-enzyme hypothesis

each gene contains the information needed to make an enzyme

metabolic pathway

synthesizing enzymes in a series of steps

messenger RNA

carry information from DNA to the site of protein synthesis

RNA polymerase

polymerizes reibonucleotides into strands of RNA

central dogma

DNA codes for RNA, which codes for proteins


the process of copying hereditary info in DNA to RNA


the process of using the info in nucleic acids to synthesize proteins

reverse transcriptase

a enzyme of retro viruses (RNA viruses) that can synthesize double-stranded DNA from a single-stranded RNA template

genetic code

the rules that specify the relationship between a sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA and the sequence of amino acids in a protein

triplet code

a three base code


group of 3 bases

reading frame

sequences of codons

start codon

AUG, signals protein synthesis should begin

stop codon

UAA, UAG, UGA, signals protein synthesis is complete

point mutation

a single base change


any permanent change in an organism's DNA

missense mutations, or replacement mutations

a point mutation that causes a change in the amino acid sequence of a protein

silent mutation

a point mutation that does not change the amino acid sequence of the gene product


a change in the number of each type of chromosome present


the addition or deletion of a chromosome


segments of a chromosome may become flipped and rejoin


chromosomes become attached to a different chromosome


the complete set of chromosomes in a cell

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