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25 terms

Ch. 15 How Genes Work

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gene expression
the process of converting archived info into molecules that actually do things in the cell
knockout, null, loss of function alleles
alleles that do not function
one-gene, one-enzyme hypothesis
each gene contains the information needed to make an enzyme
metabolic pathway
synthesizing enzymes in a series of steps
messenger RNA
carry information from DNA to the site of protein synthesis
RNA polymerase
polymerizes reibonucleotides into strands of RNA
central dogma
DNA codes for RNA, which codes for proteins
Transcription
the process of copying hereditary info in DNA to RNA
Translation
the process of using the info in nucleic acids to synthesize proteins
reverse transcriptase
a enzyme of retro viruses (RNA viruses) that can synthesize double-stranded DNA from a single-stranded RNA template
genetic code
the rules that specify the relationship between a sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA and the sequence of amino acids in a protein
triplet code
a three base code
codon
group of 3 bases
reading frame
sequences of codons
start codon
AUG, signals protein synthesis should begin
stop codon
UAA, UAG, UGA, signals protein synthesis is complete
point mutation
a single base change
mutation
any permanent change in an organism's DNA
missense mutations, or replacement mutations
a point mutation that causes a change in the amino acid sequence of a protein
silent mutation
a point mutation that does not change the amino acid sequence of the gene product
polyploidy
a change in the number of each type of chromosome present
aneuploidy
the addition or deletion of a chromosome
inversion
segments of a chromosome may become flipped and rejoin
translocation
chromosomes become attached to a different chromosome
karyotype
the complete set of chromosomes in a cell