Emphysema affecting all parts of the lobules; usually associated with a1-antiprotease deficiency
atypical, A 25-year-old black woman presents with nonproductive cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, and malaise; she has bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy on chest radiography and elevated ACE levels. What do you diagnose?
coughing up blood from the respiratory tract
Etiology of Pneumonia
Bacterial, Viral and Mycoplasma
an increased resonance of voice sounds heard when auscultating the lungs(often caused by lung consolidation and fibrosis); "Eeee" & "99"
Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis AKA
Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis AKA
fibrotic disease of the lungs caused by inhalation, retention, and pulmonary reaction to crystallizing silica
Occupational lung disease, often associated w/exposure to florescent and aerospace (granulomas)
chronic inhalation of dust particles (generally metallic or mineral dust) results in the formation of fibrotic tissue surrounding the alveoli, limiting their ability to stretch and restricting the intake of air.
Any of various diseases or pathological conditions caused by dust.
Cardinal Sign of Restrictive Airway Disease
Rapid Shallow Breathing
chronic inflammatory disease of unknown cause in which small nodules or tubercles develop in lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs
formation of fibrous scar tissue in the lungs, which leads to decreased ability to expand lungs, may be caused by infection, pneumoconiosis, autoimmune diseases, and toxin exposure
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
scarring and stiffening of lung tissue; unknown etiology
Characteristics of Restrictive Lung Disease
Decrease in Compliance; "Stiff lungs"; restricts inspiritory airflow
Principal Cell Types of Lung Cancer
Non-Small Cell(80% of cases) and Small Cell(oat cell)
a cancerous tumor in a gland that is capable of producing the hormones secreted by that gland.
the process by which cancer cells are spread by blood or lymph circulation to distant organs
Characteristics of Oat Cell Cancer Cells
Small Cytoplasm, Multiple Nuclei, Multiple and large Nucleoli, Course Chromatin
Risk Factors of Lung Cancer
Tobacco Use (90%), Occupational & Environmental Exposures, Genetic Predisposition,Gender, Dietary Factors, COPD, Air polllution
Cell types of Non-Small Cell Carcinoma
Adenocarcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Large Cell Carcinoma
Pancoast's Tumor AKA
Superior Sulcus Tumor AKA
Characteristics of Squamous Cell Lung Cancer
Lung Cancer that is slow growing, starts out as a single tumor, associated with Cigarette Smoke
Characteristics of Adenocarcinoma
Lung Cancer that is associated more with women, Occurs in the periphery(glands), Smaller and more spread out
Characteristics of Small Cell Lung Cancer
Fast growing, more spread out, More severe tumors
a tumor that is malignant and tends to spread to other parts of the body
Three most common Occupational Interstitial Lung Diseases