Create an account
A substance that prompts the generation of antibodies and can cause an immune response; A substance invading the body that stimulates the production of antibodies.
Asthma Pathophysiologic Responses
Increased Mucus Production; Swollen Bronchial Membranes; Smooth Muscle Contraction
Chronic Inflammatory Pulmonary Disorder characterized by Reversible Obstruction of the Airways
Four Components of Asthma Care Plan
Peak flow monitoring; Avoidance of Triggers; Education; Maintenance Drugs
Pharmacological Goals for Asthma Control
No Chronic Symptoms; No Exacerbations; No limitations; Near normal Pulmonary Function; Minimal use of B2 Agonists
The destruction and widening of the large airways , Results from a dilation of a bronchus or the bronchi, and can be the result of infection.
Hereditary disorder characterized by lung congestion and infection and malabsorption of nutrients by the pancreas
cystic fibrosis trans-membrane conductive regulator (CFTCR)
A defect in this gene is believed to be the cause of CF
Bronchiolitis Signs and Symptoms
generally affects infants; tachypnia and accessory intercostal muscle use;
A reversible chronic respiratory disease; often arising from allergies; accompanied by labored breathing, airway constriction and remodeling
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
a disease of airflow limitation that is preventable and treatable, however; is not fully reversible
Hypertrophy of Mucosa Gland (Bronchitis)
Mucosal glands are grossly enlarged; mucousa production increases
acute or chronic inflammation of the mucous membranes of the paranasal sinuses; mucus production is decreased
inflammation of the upper airways with swelling that creates a funnel shaped- elongation of tissue causing a distinct cough, barking cough; CXR: Hourglass or Steeple
Croup Treatment and Therapy
Cool moist air; O2 if needed; Racemic Epinephrine via Nebulizer; Consider Corticosteroids
etiology of Epiglottitis
Bacterial (Haemophilus influenza)- the origin of Epiglottitis, Menengitis & other respiratory infections
Right sided heart failure; an enlargement of the right ventricle due to pulmonary hypertension, usually caused by chronic lung disease
Two clinical signs of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Chronic Bronchitis (inflammation of the bronchi) and Emphysema (the loss of elasticity within the lungs)
circulates in blood; most abundant WBC; first responders to microbial infection; lifespan within blood stream 2 days (few hours after entering infected tissue)
inflammation of the lung caused by infection from bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites; or resulting from aspiration of chemicals; consolidation
Bronchoaveolar Lavage (BAL)
A bronchoscope passed through mouth or nose into the lungs, a fluid is squirted into a small part of the lung and then recollected for examination.
Risk groups of pneumonia
Elderly (>65), infants, patients w/ HIV, cancer, diabetes, asthma, COPD, smokers, substance abusers
Antibiotics, Supportive- fluids, rest, monitor BP, Pulmonary- Directed cough, bronchodilators, oxygen
pneumonia associated w/ immunocompromised patients (HIV); treatment- Pentamidine
3 types of aspiration pneumonia
Chemical (gastric contents, external agents); Particulate (food, foreign objects); Bacterial ( oropharyngeal secretions ( w/ VAP))
TB risk groups/ locations
urban dwellers, prisons, military barracks, nursing homes, homeless, where there is alot of immigration (Hispanic, African Americans, Asians)
Legionella, aspiration pneumonia, HAP, pneumocystis carinii (PCP), fungal infections, TB
Emphysema affecting all parts of the lobules; usually associated with a1-antiprotease deficiency
atypical, A 25-year-old black woman presents with nonproductive cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, and malaise; she has bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy on chest radiography and elevated ACE levels. What do you diagnose?
an increased resonance of voice sounds heard when auscultating the lungs(often caused by lung consolidation and fibrosis); "Eeee" & "99"
fibrotic disease of the lungs caused by inhalation, retention, and pulmonary reaction to crystallizing silica
Occupational lung disease, often associated w/exposure to florescent and aerospace (granulomas)
chronic inhalation of dust particles (generally metallic or mineral dust) results in the formation of fibrotic tissue surrounding the alveoli, limiting their ability to stretch and restricting the intake of air.
chronic inflammatory disease of unknown cause in which small nodules or tubercles develop in lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs
formation of fibrous scar tissue in the lungs, which leads to decreased ability to expand lungs, may be caused by infection, pneumoconiosis, autoimmune diseases, and toxin exposure
Characteristics of Restrictive Lung Disease
Decrease in Compliance; "Stiff lungs"; restricts inspiritory airflow
a cancerous tumor in a gland that is capable of producing the hormones secreted by that gland.
the process by which cancer cells are spread by blood or lymph circulation to distant organs
Characteristics of Oat Cell Cancer Cells
Small Cytoplasm, Multiple Nuclei, Multiple and large Nucleoli, Course Chromatin
Risk Factors of Lung Cancer
Tobacco Use (90%), Occupational & Environmental Exposures, Genetic Predisposition,Gender, Dietary Factors, COPD, Air polllution
Cell types of Non-Small Cell Carcinoma
Adenocarcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Large Cell Carcinoma
Characteristics of Squamous Cell Lung Cancer
Lung Cancer that is slow growing, starts out as a single tumor, associated with Cigarette Smoke
Characteristics of Adenocarcinoma
Lung Cancer that is associated more with women, Occurs in the periphery(glands), Smaller and more spread out
Three most common Occupational Interstitial Lung Diseases
Asbestosis, Silicosis, CWP-Coal Workers Pneumoconiosis
Types of traumatic Neuromuscular Disease
Spinal chord injury, Closed Head Injury, Drug Overdose, Cerebralvascular Accident
types of Progressive/ Genetic Neuromuscular Diseases
Muscular Dystrophy (Duchenne's the worst), Multiple Sclerosis
Spurious Neuromuscular Diseases
Guillain- Barre Syndrome, Myasthenia Gravis, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Poliomyelitis
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
degenerates motor neurons, starts peripherally then central, muscles can't contract
genetically transmitted, atrophy of skeletal muscles w/ normal neural tissue, Duchenne's = the worst form
Polio/ Post- Polio Syndrome- Poliomyelitis
caused by a viral infection, flu- like symptoms can lead to paralysis, doesn't happen in U.S.
Fungal pneumonia which occurs by inhalation of the fungus from its natural soil habitat; Generally South-central, South-Eastern and Mid-Western U.S.
Spurious Neuro-muscular diseases
Poliomyelitis, Amyotropic Lateral Sclerosis, Myasthenia Gravis, Guillan Barre Syndrome
Heart problem associated with COPD
Cor Pulmonale (Right side heart failure which leads to peripheral edema)
B lymphocytes Defined
form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections
Most likely effect idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis has on the lung
Decreases the Static Compliance within the lung
gastroesophageal reflux disease
quite common with asthma patients; acid from the stomach backs up into the esophagus causing inflammation and pain
a disease state where heart damage prevents sufficient blood flow resulting in shock
abnormal accumulation of fluid in the lungs often caused by congestive heart failure
A thrombus blocking the pulmonary artery; you will have ventilation but no prefusion; ventilation/perfusion scan often ordered to assess this condition
Symptoms of Myocardial Infarction
Dyspnea; Anxiety; Severe and Heavy Chest Pain in excess of 30 Mins; Nausea
Clogging, narrowing, and hardening of the body's large arteries and medium-sized blood vessels.
Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.
Having trouble? Click here for help.
We can’t access your microphone!
Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again
Reload the page to try again!Reload
Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom
Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom
It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.
Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.
For more help, see our troubleshooting page.
Your microphone is muted
For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.
Star this term
You can study starred terms together