34 terms

CLCV-116 Exam 2 Emperors/Others

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Augustus
the founder of the Roman Empire and its first Emperor, ruling from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD. He was born Gaius Octavius into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian Octavii family
Tiberius
Roman Emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD. was the son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. His mother divorced Nero and married Augustus in 39 BC, making him a step-son of Octavian
Caligula
he popular nickname of Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, Roman emperor. was a member of the house of rulers conventionally known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty
Claudius
Roman emperor from 41 to 54. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, he was the son of Drusus and Antonia Minor. He was born at Lugdunum in Gaul, the first Roman Emperor to be born outside Italy
Nero
Roman Emperor from 54 to 68, and the last in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nero was adopted by his grand-uncle Claudius to become his heir and successor, and succeeded to the throne in 54 following Claudius' death
Year of the Four Emperors
a year in the history of the Roman Empire, AD 69, in which four emperors ruled in succession: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian. The suicide of emperor Nero, in 68, was followed by a brief period of civil war, the first Roman civil war since Mark Antony's death in 30 BC.
Vespasian
Roman Emperor from AD 69 to AD 79. founded the Flavian dynasty that ruled the Empire for twenty seven years. was from an equestrian family that rose into the senatorial rank under the Julio-Claudian emperors
Titus
Roman Emperor from 79 to 81. A member of the Flavian dynasty, succeeded HIS FATHER VASPASIAN upon his death, thus becoming the first Roman Emperor to come to the throne after his own biological father
Domitian
Roman emperor from 81 to 96. the third and last emperor of the Flavian dynasty
Nerva
became Emperor at the age of sixty-five, after a lifetime of imperial service under Nero and the rulers of the Flavian dynasty.
Trajan
Officially declared by the Senate as optimus princeps ("the best ruler"), remembered as a successful soldier-emperor who presided over the greatest military expansion in Roman history, leading the empire to attain its maximum territorial extent by the time of his death
Hadrian
He rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma. He is also known for building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Britannia.
Antoninus Pius
a member of the Nerva-Antonine dynasty and the Aurelii; son of Hadrian
Marcus Aurelius
ruled with Lucius Verus as co-emperor from 161 until Verus' death in 169. He was the last of the Five Good Emperors, and is also considered one of the most important Stoic philosophers.
Commodus
He also ruled as co-emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from 177 until his father's death in 180. He was also the first emperor to have both a father and grandfather (who had adopted his father) as the two preceding emperors. was the first (and until 337, the only) emperor "born in the purple", i.e., during his father's reign; son of Marcus Aurelius
Septimius Severus
was born in Leptis Magna in the Roman province of Africa. As a young man he advanced through the cursus honorum—the customary succession of offices—under the reigns of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus. seized power after the death of Emperor Pertinax in 193 during the Year of the Five Emperors.
Caracalla
was the popular nickname of Antoninus, Roman emperor of Punic and Syrian descent. The eldest son of Septimius Severus, he reigned jointly with his father from 198 until Severus' death in 211. For a short time he then ruled jointly with his younger brother Geta until he had him murdered later in 211. remembered as one of the most notorious and unpleasant of emperors because of the massacres and persecutions he authorized and instigated throughout the Empire
Elagabalus
A member of the Severan Dynasty, he was Syrian, the second son of Julia Soaemias and Sextus Varius Marcellus. In his early youth he served as a priest of the god Elagabal (in Latin, Elagabalus) in the hometown of his mother's family, Emesa. As a private citizen, he was probably named Sextus Varius Avitus Bassianus.[1] Upon becoming emperor he took the name Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus. He was called Elagabalus only after his death
Severus Alexander
the last emperor of the Severan dynasty. He succeeded his cousin Elagabalus upon the latter's assassination in 222, and was ultimately assassinated himself, marking the epoch event for the Crisis of the Third Century — nearly fifty years of civil wars, foreign invasion, and collapse of the monetary economy
Aurelian
Born in humble circumstances, he rose through the military ranks to become emperor. During his reign, he defeated the Alamanni after a devastating war. He also defeated the Goths, Vandals, Juthungi, Sarmatians, and Carpi. restored the Empire's eastern provinces after his conquest of the Palmyrene Empire in 273. The following year he conquered the Gallic Empire in the west, reuniting the Empire in its entirety. He was also responsible for the construction of the Aurelian Walls in Rome, and the abandonment of the province of Dacia
Diocletian
Born to a family of low status in the Roman province of Dalmatia, Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become cavalry commander to the Emperor Carus. After the deaths of Carus and his son Numerian on campaign in Persia, Diocletian was proclaimed emperor. The title was also claimed by Carus' other surviving son, Carinus, but Diocletian defeated him in the Battle of the Margus. Diocletian's reign stabilized the empire and marks the end of the Crisis of the Third Century. He appointed fellow officer Maximian as Augustus, co-emperor, in 286
Constantine
the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius, a Roman army officer, and his consort Helena. His father became Caesar, the deputy emperor in the west in 293 AD. was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to became a military tribune under the emperors Diocletian and Galerius
Julian
A member of the Constantinian dynasty, became Caesar over the western provinces by order of Constantius II in 355 and in this role campaigned successfully against the Alamanni and Franks. Most notable was his crushing victory over the Alamanni in 357 at the Battle of Argentoratum despite being outnumbered
Theodosius
the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the Empire; he failed to kill, expel, or entirely subjugate them, and after the Gothic War they established a homeland south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders
Justinian
sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire.
Romulus Augustulus
reigning over the Western Roman Empire, His deposition by Odoacer traditionally marks the end of the western empire, the fall of ancient Rome, and the beginning of the Middle Ages in Western Europe
Odoacer
was a soldier, who in 476 became the first King of Italy, His reign is commonly seen as marking the end of the Western Roman Empire
Agrippina the Younger
a Roman Empress and one of the more prominent women in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. She was a great-granddaughter of the Emperor Augustus, great-niece and adoptive granddaughter of the Emperor Tiberius, sister of the Emperor Caligula, niece and fourth wife of the Emperor Claudius, and mother of the Emperor Nero
Agrippina the Elder
a distinguished and prominent Roman woman of the first century CE. was the wife of the general and statesman Germanicus and a relative to the first Roman Emperors; the second granddaughter of the Emperor Augustus, sister-in-law, stepdaughter and daughter-in-law of the Emperor Tiberius, mother of the Emperor Caligula, maternal second cousin and sister-in-law of the Emperor Claudius and the maternal grandmother of the Emperor Nero.
Maxentius
He was the son of former Emperor Maximian and the son-in-law of Emperor Galerius
Messalina
the third wife of the Roman Emperor Claudius. She was also a paternal cousin of the Emperor Nero, second cousin of the Emperor Caligula, and great-grandniece of the Emperor Augustus; A powerful and influential woman with a reputation for promiscuity, it was claimed that she conspired against her husband and was executed when the plot was discovered. Her notorious reputation is arguably the result of political bias. It has been perpetuated by works of art and literature into modern times
Pontius Pilate
the fifth prefect of the Roman province of Judaea; erved under Emperor Tiberius, and is best known from the biblical account of the trial and crucifixion of Jesus
Quinctilius Varus
a Roman General and Politician under the first Roman emperor Augustus; generally remembered for having lost three Roman legions and taking his own life when attacked by Germanic leader Arminius in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Zenobia
a 3rd-century Queen of the Palmyrene Empire in Syria, who led a famous revolt against the Roman Empire. The eighth wife of King Septimius Odaenathus