they move to avoid conflict, violence, predators and natural disasters- time space compression as changed the ways people migrate
Pushes ad pulls
the forces that spur migration from the country of origin and draw immigrants to a particular new destination country- education, health care, investment opportunities, higher wages, job
people that are forced to leave their home
Bridges and barriers
the factors that enable or inhibit migration- learning a new language and adapting a new culture
the movement of people facilitated by the support of networks of family and friends who have already immigrated - networks
an organization created for mutual support by immigrants from the same town or region- support organization
resources transferred from migrants working abroad to individuals, families, and institutions in their country of origin- this could be money or social things
an accumulation of factors that create a culture in which migration comes to be expected
Types of immigrants
labor immigrants professional immigrants entrepreneurial immigrants refugees
low-skill low-wage jobs filling economic niches that native born workers will not fill- enter under guest worker programs- grant the right to work for limited periods but deny long-term rights and privileges
highly trained individuals who move to fill economic niches in middle class professions marked by shortages in the receiving country. Brain drain- western style professions who lack opportunity to implement their training at home- "cosmonauts"- extremely wealthy people that travel throughout the week
Assets and skills such as language, education, and social networks that can be mobilized in lieu of or as complementary to financial capital- Indians bring to US
move to new locations to conduct trade and establish businesses- Chinese. They use their ethnic connections to mobilize the financial capital needed to start a business
people who have been forced to migrate beyond their national boarders because of political or religious persecution, armed conflict, or other forms of violence, or natural disasters- Soviet Union biggest refugees
Internally displaced person
a person who has been forced to move within his or her country of origin because of persecution, armed conflict, or natural disaster
seeing migration as one that affects both men and women but often in distinctly different ways
a person who left his or her home country as an adult
Second- generation immigrant
the child of immigrants who is born and raised in the new host country
the child of immigrants who is born in the family's home country but at a young age moves with his or her parents to a new host country- experience a doubly complex enculturation process
Dominican American that has provided her unique view on how globalization is experienced and shaped by young people.
Kingdom of Tonga- immigration
leaving in large numbers for Australia- leaving for the increasing gap between Tongan aspirations and opportunities
A west African country that is leaving. They don't have a good agricultural environment. Most people send money home. They are treated as outsiders when they do go to another country. A lot of people keep in the country bc they want a connection to home.
the movement of people within their own national borders- ex: disruption of agricultural land
time space compression
This helps tie families together when in a different country. Migrants have a completely different experience now.
the practice of maintaining active participation in social, economic, religious, and political spheres across national borders.
immigrants who having settled in a new receiving country reverse course and return home. sometimes in the same generation
Japanese Brazilians return migration
rejected by mainstream Japanese society.
Chapter 14- Politics and Power
Political Systems by political anthropologist
bands, tribes, chiefdoms, states
a small kinship-based group of foragers who hunt and gather for a living over a particular territory- they break up and reform regularly- more egalitarian then hierarchy
Originally viewed as a culturally distinct, multiband population that imagined itself as one people descended from a common ancestor; currently used to describe an indigenous group with its own set of loyalties and leaders living to some extent outside the control of a centralized authoritative state (ethnic group)
an autonomous political unit composed of a number of villages or communities under the permanent control of a paramount chief- built around extended kinship networks or lineages
an archipelago of small islands in the south pacific. susceptible to catastrophic storms- these make a huge mark on micronesian political structure. The storms only effect certain islands. The people leave and go to their lineages. Combined political system and social system make it easy for people
There has not been a band, tribe, chiefdom that hasnt been effected by
an autonomous regional structure of political, economic, and military rule with a central government authorized to make laws and use force to maintain order and defend its territory
the ability of a dominant group to create consent and agreement within a populate without the use or threat of force- shape what group members think is normal, natural, and possible, thereby influencing and limiting the scope of human action and interaction
Internation nonstate actors challenge state sovereignty
states are increasingly struggling to control who and what enters and leaves their territories. State sovereignty- the right of the state to maintain self-determination within its borders- is being challenged by powerful international nonstate actors
Civil society organizations
a local nongovernmental organization that challenges state policies and uneven development, and advocates for resources and opportunities for members of its local communities
global civil society organizations
join forces with transnational movements and networks to transform local problems and conflicts into part of a global project for rights and resources - time space compression
Tanzania: Maasai demand political rights and international recognition
rise of civil society.- they live on political periphery. They are a big part of the UN now. There is a division between the upper class/ lower class.
Are humans naturally violent or peaceful?
1.violence may be attributed to physiological factors- DNA testosterone and neural wiring. 2. Violence arises through cultural practice and patterns that overwhelm basic human nature 3. human violence in between nature and culture
Myth of killer apes and aggressive humans
This cant be true bc then everyone would have to live alone
the contested social process through which civil society organizes for the production of military violence- not only the production of the material objects but also the glorification of war
militarization influences research in physics, information technology, and psychology, nation budget priorities, discussion and debates about gender and sexuality, race and citizenship, privacy and security.
Brickford's anthropological study
no one is born a soldier. soldiers can be made and unmade. process of enculturation
southeast Africa had 15 years of civil war after independence from Portugal.- terror warfare- rebel guerillas and Mozambican government.
the potential power of individuals and groups to contest cultural norms, values, symbols, mental maps of reality, institutions, and structures of power
collective group actions in response to uneven development, inequality, and injustice that seek to build institutional networks to transform cultural patterns and government policies
the creation of shared meanings and definitions that motivate and justify collective action by social movements