terms on study guide
Terms in this set (24)
Congress of Vienna
conservative, reactionary meeting, led by prince metternich, restore europe to prerevolution time; Von Metternich created the German Confederation, headed by Austria
a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country; Napoleon created a strong feeling of nationalism in Germany when he unified it into 38 states
Otto von Bismarck
Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire;
"by blood and iron!"; Anti-Reichstag (no parliament); thought democracy was slow; realpolitik; not german nationalist; seen as advocate for german liberties; won war against Austria; people must be loyal to state not local province
"Blood and Iron"
"Blood and Iron" was the speech that Otto Von Bismarck gave with the belief that a strong industry and military was needed in a country to have success. The blood represented the military while the iron represented the industry of Germany.
realistic politics based on the needs of the state. Power was more important than principles; Bismarck believed in this
Kingdom of Prussia
Wilhelm I becomes King of Prussia --> he wanted to reform and build army; OvB appointed chacellor
Kaiser Wilhelm I
king of Prussia (1858) wanted to reform and build an army and he appointed OvB as chacellor
Kaiser Wilhelm II
beomes kaiser in 1888; forced Bismarck to resign; said "there is only one master in the Reich and that is I"; social welfare programs; cheap transportation and electricity; public schools; expanded German navy; overseas colonies; nationalism and aggressive military stance = prewar tension!
Klemens von Metternich
part of the congress of vienna; he created the German Confederation, headed by Austria
Nephew of Napoleon I and emperor of the French from 1852 to 1871 (1808-1873). He helped Italy drive out Austria from parts of its land. Nationalism
Also known as the seven weeks war; 1866 Bismarck declares war on Austria; before the war bismarck found allies (Russia - neutral, France - on Prussia's side, Italy - Prussia's side); war only lasted 7 weeks; prussia had more sophisticated weaponry; result: prussia took control of other German states. Bismarck dissolved Austrian-led German Confederation and created one dominated by Prussia
signified the final unification of Germany; France became prominent enemy of Germany; France was bitter b/c they lost Alsace-Lorraine
Prussia wants Scheleswig and Holstein territories in Denmark; Austria fought against Denmark to show they cared about Germans; Prussia showed off their army; Prussian/Austrian vicotry; Austria gets Holstein and Prussia gets Scheleswig.
the German state
created in the 1830s. an economic union between the German States that dismantled tariffs; can trade amongst each other without taxes; stimulating inter German economy
Goal: loyalty to state; government supervision of catholic education and appointment of priests; couples married by civil authority; plan backfired! religion is impoirtant to the people and this made the people more angry with Bismarck
Taxes on imports or exports
lower house in the legislature, elected by universal male suffrage
territory that once belonged to France but Prussia took in the Franco-Prussian war
Schleswig and Holstein
territories in Denmark that Prussia and Austria claimed after the Danish-Prussian war
Describe the Political state of the German people before unification
Napoleon consolidated it into 38 states
Through what means did the german people become unified?
through war and industrializing
What factors did Germany possess that made industrialization possible there?
ample iron and coal resources; disciplined work force; sense of responsibility; willingness to obey authority; population boom; government promoted economic development --> single currency, reorganization of banking system, coordination of railroads, raised tariffs to protect home industries from foreign competition
How did Germany increase its power after unifying in 1871?
nationalism and loyalty, increase in population, industrialization and railroads, economic development, kulturkampf, military