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*Longest river in the world located in Africa (4,150 miles)
*Flows northward and empties into the Mediterranean Sea
*Overflows once a year

Irrigation System - channels and dikes

watering of dry land by means of
channels-lets water flow
dikes-stop the flow of water


triangle (or fan shape) fertile marshy land at the mouth of a river -
*Most egyptians lived in the Delta


Measuring device use to help predict the height of coming flood waters

Meditterranean Sea

A sea that the Nile empties into


ancient tool used to scoop water
(clay weight on one end and bucket on the other)


a plant harvested into grain
(makes clothing and sitting mats)


plant that grows along the Nile - papyrus can be used to make baskets, sandals and paper

fertile valley

a small village north of the Thebes the Capital of Egypt - the soil here is replenished when Nile floods


the plague of locusts is when the sky turns blackened by insects and ate everything in their path

Shait, season of inundation

Mid July to October
waters of the Nile flood and bring silt to make fertile soil

Shemu, season of the harvest

February to May
Crops are gathered by members of the family and great feasts are planned

Piruit, season of emergence

water starts to recede
soil is reading for planting


type of plow used to plant

Lower Egypt

found in Northern Egypt (near the Delta)
Nile Delta region

Upper Egypt

found in Southern Egypt (upstream)


enriched soil good for farming


located on the continent of Africa


mixture of tiny bits of rocks and soil

Why do people need water from the Nile

because the country gets very little rain'

What is the Nile protected by on all sides from invasion?

Mountains, deserts or water

How did Egyptian farmers control the waters of the Nile?

*used irrigation through a series of canals, dikes and irrigation ditches
*trapped floodwaters from river -saved in basins
*used shaouf to lift the water from Nile to basin
*farmers depended on the flooding to grow crops

Where is the only land with soil able to grow crops?

along the banks of the Nile - known as the fertile valley - fertile land crops grow well and plenty to eat - floodwaters carried silt which enriched soil

Greek Historian "Herodotus"

Called Egypt the Gift of the Nile because of Egypts highly developed civilization to the Nile - Egypt would be a desert without the Nile!

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