Chapter 7

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

training
An organization's planned efforts to help employees acquire job-related knowledge, skills, abilities, and behaviors, with the goal of applying these on the job.
strategies of instructional design (steps)
-assess needs for training
-ensure readiness for training
- plan training program (objectives, trainers, methods)
-Implement training program (principles of learning and transfer of training)
-Evaluate results of training
instructional design
a process of systematically developing training to meet specified needs
learning management systems
a computer application that automates the administration, development, and delivery of training programs. (identifies training needs and allows course enrollments)
Needs Assessment defined
the process of evaluating the organization, individual employees, and employees' tasks to determine what kinds of training, if any, are necessary
Needs Assessment components
-Organization Analysis (What is the context in which training will occur?)
-Person Analysis (Who needs training?)
-Task Analysis (What subjects should training cover?)
conditions for needs assessment
-employees lack basic skills
-decisions for new products, technology, jobs
-consumer requests
-legal requirements
-plans for better rewards, hiring, and safety precautions
organizational analysis defined
a process for determining the appropriateness of training by evaluating the characteristics of the organization
organizational analysis looks at:
Training needs in light of organizations:
-strategies
-resources for training
-managements support for training activities
organizational analysis based on:
-growing/shrinking personnel
-seeking to serve a broad customer base or narrow market segment
-other strategic scenarios
planning training program considerations
whether organization has:
-budget, time, and expertise for training
-organization must be will to support the investment In training
good training proposals include:
-specific goals
-timetables
-budgets
-and methods of measuring success
person analysis defined
a process of determining individuals' needs and readiness for training
effective training objectives include statements of:
-Expectations
-Conditions under which the employee is to apply what he or she learned.
-Quality or level of acceptable performance
•Measurable performance standards.
-Resources needed to carry out desired performance or outcome
when is personal analysis critical?
when training is considered in response to a performance problem
primary variables that can influence performance
-person's ability and skills (affected by training)
-attitudes/motivation
-organizations input (clear directions, necessary resources, freedom from interface/distractions)
-positive consequences to motivate good performance
task analysis defined
the process of identifying and analyzing tasks, knowledge, skills and behaviors to be trained for (generally conducted with person analysis)
conditions of task analysis
-equipment
-environment of job
-time constraints (ie deadlines)
- safety considerations
performance standards
basis of task analysis
a description of work activities or tasks required by the person's job
task slide scale questionnaires from "subject-matter experts"
0= never performed, 5= often performed
to rate the task's importance, frequency, difficulty. (determines which tasks will be the focus of training)
when is training most needed (logically)?
for tasks that are important, frequent, and at least moderately difficult (identify the knowledge, skills, and abilities required)
Readiness for training
a combination of employee characteristics and positive work environment that permit training (exists when employees are eager to learn and the organization encourages learning)
employee readiness characteristics
-ready to learn
-need basic learning skills
+cognitive ability (being able to read and write)
-solve math problems
-use logic to solve problems
managers influence employee "ready attitude" by:
-providing feedback that encourages
-establishing rewards for learning
-communicating with employees about the organization's career paths and future needs
work environment characteristics
situational constraints and social support
situational constraints
the limits on trainings effectiveness that arise from the situation or the conditions within the organization (ie lack of money, time, proper tools/materials
social support
refers to the ways the organizations people encourage training, including giving trainees praise/encouraging words, share info about participating in training programs, expressing positive attitudes toward the organization's training programs
what managers should do to support training
-understand the content of training
-know how training relates to what you need employees to do
-performance appraisals, evaluate employees on how they apply training to their jobs
-support employees' use of training when they return to work
-ensure that employees have the equipment/technology
-recognize newly trained employees who use training content
-and more on page 204
Planning the training program steps
1. establish objectives for the training program
2. based on those objectives, the planner decides:
-who will provide the training
-what topics the training will cover
-what training methods to use
-how to evaluate the training
RFP means/includes
Request for Proposal, document outlining
-the type of service needed
-type/number of references needed
-number of employees to be trained
-the date of training (start and completion)
-date by which proposal is received
-funding for the project and process measuring level of satisfaction
what an organization mails out to several vendors for selecting training services?
RFP, request for proposal
RFP influence
takes a while and its generally more costly (if specialized) but is beneficial in the end because it helps the organization clarify its objectives, compare vendors, and measure results
training administration
typically responsibility of a HR professional. Refers to an organization sending an employee to outside training programs and using their experience to teach/run the overall organizations training program
Categories of training methods
presentation, hands on, group building
Techniques of Training methods
-presentation (lectures, workbooks, video clips, podcasts, websites)
-hands on (on the job training, simulations, role plays, computer games)
-group building (group discussions, experiential programs, team training)
application of training methods: presentation
conveying facts or comparing alternatives
application of training methods: hands on
teaching specific skills; showing how skills are related to job or how to handle interpersonal issues
application of training methods: group building
establishing teams or work groups; managing performance of teams or work groups
use of instructional methods
-Instructor led classroom (42%)
-blended (combination of methods, 24%)
-online or computer based (22%)
-virtual classroom/webcast (11%)
-social network or mobile (1%)
Classroom Instruction with "distance learning"
trainees at different locations attend programs online, using their computers to view lectures, participate in discussions, and share documents. (may include: videoconference, email, instant messaging, document sharing software, and web cams)
advantages and disadvantages of distance learning
Advantages:
-classroom training without the cost/time of travel to a shared classroom

Disadvantages:
-limited interaction between trainer and audience (usually provide a communication link to avoid this)
audiovisual training
techniques such as overhead transparencies, powerpoint or other presentation software, video or audio clips
computer based training
participants receive course materials and instruction distributed over the internet or on CD-ROM (often interactive)
e-learning
receiving training via the Internet or the organizations Intranet
(typically through web-based training modules, distance learning, and virtual classrooms)

EX: "Quicken's Got Talent"
contest within customer service where employees post their recorded conversations
electronic performance support systems
computer application that provides access to skills training, information, and expert advice when a problem occurs on the job.
faster than attending classes, just look up an unfamiliar task
Double Tree training materials at front desk for employees are
two ipads with all the materials as audiovisual training, or available via APP store
advantages/disadvantages of audiovisual training
advantage:
-gives trainees a consistent presentation, not affected by an individual trainer's goals and skills
-fast forward, rewind, pause, etc.

disadvantages:
-trying to present too much material
-poorly written dialogue
-overuse of features (humor/music)
-drama that distracts from the key points

a well written and carefully produced video can overcome these problems
best e-learning combines
the advantages of the internet with the principles of a good learning environment
On the job training (OJT)
training methods in which a person with job experience and skill guides trainees in practicing job skills at the workplace (ie apprenticeships and internships)
apprenticeship
a work study training method that teaches job skills through a combination of on the job training and classroom training. ability to earn an income while learning a trade.
internship
one the job learning sponsored by an educational institution as a component of an academic program.
Typical jobs for apprenticeship and internship
A: bricklayer, carpenter, electrician, plumber, printer, welder
I: accountant, doctor, journalist, lawyer, nurse
simulations
a training method that represents a real-life situation, with trainees making decisions resulting in outcomes that mirror what would happen on the job. (expensive to develop and need constant updating)
HUD means
head up display simulation at Boeing
avatars
computer depictions of trainees, which the trainees manipulate in an online role-play
virtual reality
a computer based technology that provides an interactive, three-dimensional learning experience (ie disaster response)
experiential programs
training programs in which participants learn concepts and apply them by simulating behaviors involved and analyzing the activity, connecting it with real life situations
adventure learning
a teamwork and leadership training program based on the use of challenging, structured outdoor activities (ie wall climbing, rafting, etc. to help build trust and cooperation among employees)
Cross training
team training in which team members understand and practice each other's skills so that they are prepared to step in and take another member's place
coordination training
team training that teaches the team how to share information and make decisions to obtain the best team performance
team training
coordinates the performance of individuals who work together to achieve a common goal (ie military, commercial airplanes, nuclear power plants)
team leader training
train in the skills necessary for effectively leading the organization's teams
action learning
training in which teams get an actual problem, work on solving it and commit to an action plan and are accountable for carrying it out
Training Program Implementation: Principles of Learning
-Employees are most likely to learn when training is linked to their current job experiences and tasks.
-Employees need a chance to demonstrate and practice what they have learned.
-Trainees need to understand whether or not they are succeeding.
-Well-designed training helps people remember content.
-Written materials should have an appropriate reading level.
Ways that training helps employees learn:
-communicate the learning objective
-use distinctive, attention-getting messages
-limit the content of training
-guide trainees as they learn
-elaborate on the subject
-provide memory cues
-transfer course content to the workplace
-provide feedback about performance
readability
the difficulty level of written materials
transfer of training
on the job use of knowledge, skills, behaviors learned in training
communities of practice
groups of employees who work together, learn from each other, and develop a common understand of how to get work accomplished
measures of training success
-ROI
-performance improvements
-new skills, knowledge
-transfer of training
-trainee satisfaction
Training program evaluation criteria
oReactions
-Centered on "how did you like this program?" "how does it compare to other programs you've attended?"
-Helpful to ask their opinion because the overall experience influences the trainees attitude and feelings towards the job (whether positive or negative)
•Can help you tailor your program
oLearning
-Ways the trainees are learning whether theyre watching videos, listening to a lecture, doing stimulations, etc.
oBehaviors
-Is the individual able to apply the knowledge or skill showcased in the training to the actual job?
oResults
-Was there a change in organizational effectiveness? Save more money? Save time with customer service by them being able to answers customers' questions quicker?
-Can quantify the results to see if the cost of training is less than the savings
•May want something more cost effective
applications of trainings
orientation of new employees and training in how to manage workforce diversity
orientation training defined
training designed to prepare employees to perform their jobs effectively, learn about their organization, and establish work relationships
orientation training objective
Familiarize new employees with the organization's rules, policies, and procedures
HR/manager's role in orientation
-you need to prepare employees to do their jobs effectively by teaching them all the critical aspects of the job to ensure success
-Need to make a plan, think about...
oWhere are they in training and skills
oWhat do they need
oWhat should you do to assist those needs
-Prepare employees to
oPerform their jobs effectively
oLearn about their organization
oEstablish work relationships
diversity training
training designed to change employee attitudes about diversity and/or develop skills needed to work with a diverse workforce
Characteristics of Effective Diversity Training Programs
oTraining should be tied to business objectives
oTop management involvement and support and involvement of managers at all levels are important.
oThe program should:
-Emphasize learning behaviors and skills, not blaming employees
-Be well structured
-Deliver rewards for performance
-Measure the success of the training