Ottoman Empire IDS

strait, separated from the Dardanelles strait by the Sea of Marmara, that connects the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea, was under the control of the Byzantines until it's conquering by the Ottomans
strait, separated from the Dardanelles strait by the Sea of Marmara, that connects the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea, was under the control of the Byzantines until it's conquering by the Ottomans
Sea of Marmara
When the Mongols destroyed the Sejuks and took control over most of Iran one pocket of resistance by the Turks was seen in the town of Bursa, across the Marmara Sea, separates the Bosporus and Dardanelles straits
"new soldier", elite military units/guards of the Ottoman Empire, Christian boys collected as "blood tax" to serve as slaves in the Sultan's service, they were converted to Islam and trained in extremely harsh conditions to be foot soldiers or administrators, they weren't allowed to have a family -> only loyalty to the Sultan
'Selection' in Turkish. The system by which boys from Christian communities were taken by the Ottoman state to serve as Janissaries
the Janissaries wielded significant power at the court since they controlled much of the weaponry of the empire, in a pattern called praetorianism (indicating a situation of political breakdown where no one plays by the rules) many made claims to the throne and some rose to become the Sultan's viziers
Battle of Kosovo 1389
the Ottomans began to master the technology of firearms, with their new forces they defeated the Serbs at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, both commanders were killed in battle
Mehmed II
under his leadership the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire and conquered Constantinople with 80,000 troops, great patron of the arts
May 29, 1453
the Ottomans breached the walls of Constantinople and captured the city on this date, the city became the Ottoman capital and was renamed Istanbul
Selim I
from 1514 to 1517 he took control of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Arabia, the Ottomans were now in control of several of Islam's holy cities including Jerusalem, Makkah (Mecca) and Madinah (Medina), he declared himself caliph
government appointed officials who collected taxes, maintained law and order and were directly responsible to the Sultan's court, specially gifted Janissaries were selected to be pashas in a selective process based on merit
Suleyman I ("The Magnificent")
Mehmet's great-grandson who assumed the throne in 1520, codified the laws and imperial proclamations that were enforced in the empire, his reign was the apogee of the Ottoman Empire, expanded the empire to the west into Vienna, he was fueled by the desire to spread the Muslim faith and to appease the Janissaries with plunder from military campaigns, foolishly allied with French -> gave French capitulations regarding trade
from Latin "capitula" meaning chapters; granting of special rights and privileges to Europeans, usually including extraterritoriality (the right to be tried in the courts of one's country), Ottoman government first capitulated to French demands and then those of other Europeans -> sign of European strength and Ottoman weakness
Battle of Lepanto 1579
the Ottomans were successfully advancing into the western Mediterranean until the Papal states joined forces with Venice and Spain to launch a naval attack that destroyed a large Ottoman fleet at Lepanto in 1571
Siege of Vienna 1683
the Turks surged into Vienna and eventually Vienna, all Europeans trembled until they were pushed back by Polish cavalry
Gunpowder Empire
the Ottoman Empire was largely defined by its mastery of the technology of firearms (European technology)
supreme authority in both a military and political sense, hereditary, ultimate ownership of all land resided with the sultan, as the empire expanded rule became increasingly imperial and the sultan grew increasingly isolated from his people
"sacred place", the private domain of the sultan where him and his wife resided
Grand Vizier
a chief minister who carried the main burdens of the state, led the council, the sultan sat behind a screen overhearing the council and relaying his wishes to the grand vizier
Topkapi Palace
"iron gate", located in Istanbul, center of the Sultan's power, built in the 15th century by Mehmed II, served the administrative purpose of being the private residence of the Sultan and his family
the Christian and Jewish Ottoman population, accorded protection as "people of the book"
in Ottoman times an ethnic community; in modern Turkish a nation, system used to contain and appease dhimmi population, different regions were ruled with the their religious leaders, gave them autonomy within their regions, however, all people were required to obey the laws of their people and be judged in their law courts (Islamic)
greatest of all Ottoman architects, built 81 mosques including the Suleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul
Suleymaniye Mosque
glorious mosque that was described by Westerners as incomparable to any Western piece of architecture
Suleyman II ("the Drunkard")
Suleyman's concubine Hurren convinced him that his eldest son was plotting to take the throne, Sulayman killed his son leading the way for Hurren's son, Suleyman the drunkard was appointed Sultan
Problem of Succession
the position of the Sultan was hereditary and fratricide was practiced to eliminate claimants to the throne (after he was appointed Sultan the man would usually order all his brothers to be killed) -> Mehmett III killed 19 of his brothers and 6 pregnant girl's from his fathers harem -> people were outraged which led to all princes being confined to a "golden age" where they were prisoners of life who lived in absolute luxury
Economic Decline
European merchants discovered America and pioneered routes to the Orient around Africa which led the great trading empires of England and Holland to bypass the land-based routes of the Middle East -> eventually went bankrupt from borrowing money from Europeans, the Ottoman Empire was based on silver, the discovery of America flooded the European markets with a surplus of cheap silver
The Sick Man of Europe
Ottomans suffered a series of military defeats including some by the hands of the Russians -> sunk so low that by 1853 the Russian tsar called it the "sick man of Europe"
Treaty of Karlowitz 1699
beaten by the Austrian hasburgs the Ottomans signed the Treaty of Karlowitz surrending Slavonia, Transylvania and a large section of Hungary to the hasburgs
Slim III and the "New Army"
he found the Janissaries lacking and tried to replace them with a "New Army" of infantry and artillery organized in a European fashion -> janissaries revolted and destroyed the "New Army"
Mahmut III and the abolition of the Janissaries 1826
fueled by a decline in the Janissaries fighting abilities he sent a handful to receive Western training -> overly confident the Janissaries ignored the request, anticipating this reaction Mahmut ordered his artillery units to open fire on the Janissaries barracks and by 1826 he had abolished the Janissaries
The Tanzimat 1839
reforms of the Turkish government -> reorganized the army, updated equipment, troops reported to Istanbul rather than provincial governors, introduced European family, commercial, and maritime law (non-Muslims had equal status with Muslims)
The Young Ottomans
a group of Istanbul-based intellectuals who opposed reforms, proposed the establishment of a parliament as a way of reuniting the empire and reestablishing Muslim law
Sultan Abdul Aziz and the Constitution of 1876
attempted to curry British favor by announcing an Ottoman constitution -> conservative theology students rioted
Abdul Hamid II
later in 1876 he assumed throne and asserted his claim to the caliphate of all Islam
Ottoman Public Debt Authority
a new government department that was staffed and controlled by the European creditors, in 1881 after the Ottoman Empire went bankrupt the Sultan turned over his treasury to it in order to continue borrowing -> Ottomans humiliated, they had been taught that Europeans were inferior but this gave them equal rights
The Young Turks
in 1889 students formed the Ottoman Union Society and planned a coup but it was cut short when one of the plotters drunkenly revealed the plot to a senior official -> to escape arrest many fled to Paris and formed the Committee of Union and Progress known as the Young Turks
The Young Turk Revolution of 1908
Young Turks staged an armed rebellion that called for a restoration of the Constitution of 1906, to maintain peace Sultan's agreed to demands which led to the Young Turks establishing themselves as a guardian council to overse the actions of the Sultan
Mehmet V
when a group called the Muhammadan Union marched on parliament to demand the Constitution be aborted and the Christians return to dhimmi status, suspecting that the Sultan instigated the rebellion the parliament replaced Abdul Hamid with his brother Mehmet V and the CUP regained power
World War I 1914-1918
Ottomans allied with Germany -> Ottomans suffered against British
Mustafa Kemal
every general but one suffered military defeats in WWI -> Mustafa Kemal prevented British and Anzac troops from seizing the Gallipoli peninsula
Mustafa Kemal prevented British and Anzac troops from seizing the Gallipoli peninsula
Sir Henry McCahon
encouraged Arabs to free themselves from Ottoman rule
Sharif Hussein of Mecca
Sir Henry McMahon promised him an Arab kingdom
T.E. Lawrence ("Lawrence of Arabia)
delivered the offer (to the Sharif Hussein) and rose with the Arabs loyal to the Sharif in their revolt of 1916
Arab Revolt of 1916
Arab irregulars took out Ottoman forces in northern Arabia, Palestine, and Syria
British Conquest of Palestine 1917
Arab Revolt of 1916 paved the way for the British conquest of Palestine in 1917
Turkish Armistice, October 31, 1918
Ottomans withdrew 11 days before the Armistice went into effect on the Western Front -> Turkish armistice demanded the victors had the right to occupy any part of the empire if they considered their security to be under threat, forced CUP leadership to flee in a German submarine marking the end of five hundred years of Ottoman history
Armenian Genocide
at the start of WWI Russian troops enlisted the aid of Russia's Christian coreligionists, the Armenians, in 1894-1896 irregular local forces massacred thousands of Armenians -> in 1915 under CUP orders the Ottoman army rounded up Armenians and marched them at gunpoint into the Syrian desert with little food or water, many were murdered along the way, as many as 1.5 million people between 1914 and 1932 -> Turkish historians still claim the 1915 march was a precautionary move and the genocide was unintended