Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Biology Unit 5
Terms in this set (40)
Homologous Structures have similar bones, muscles, and nerves as other organisms from different species that evolved due to common ancestry. Examples are human arm, whale flipper, bat wing, bird wing.
Similar bodily structures in animals that are not closely related (due to convergent evolution). For example, a dolphin and a shark both have flippers, a fin and a similar body shape, but the shark is a fish and the dolphin is a mammal, which makes it more closely related to a rat than to the fish. Because the shark and the dolphin both live in the sea, they have evolved similar bodily structures to cope with life in that particular environment, but they are otherwise very different.
nonliving environmental factors such as temperature and sunlight
A structure in an organism that probably had a function in previous ancestors, but has lost it's original function in the course of evolution. (tiny leg bones in whales and the wings of flightless birds)
A change in the gene pool of a small population that takes place strictly by chance. Genetic drift can result in genetic traits being lost from a population or becoming widespread in a population without respect to the survival or reproductive value of the alleles involved, therefore it tends to DECREASE genetic variation.
The separation of two populations of the same species or breeding group by a physical barrier, such as a mountain or body of water.
Refers to differences between individuals or to differences between populations.
The transfer of alleles or genes from one population to another, caused by MIGRATION. (also known as gene migration)
The development of plant and animal life in an area without topsoil. For example: lava flow from a volcano eruption.
A process of regrowth that an ecosystem undergoes after a destructive event such as a fire, avalanche, or deforestation.
a protecting film covering the leaves of plants
The maximum population size of a species that the environment can sustain indefinitely, given the food, habitat, water and other necessities available in the environment.
Bacteria convert nitrogen gas into a form usable by plants.
All living (biotic) things in an ecosystem
Living organisms and non-living components.
Organisms of the same species living in the same place.
A symbiotic relationship where one species benefits at the expense of another. (heartworms on a dog, fleas on a cat, fungus on skin)
A symbiotic relationship where both species benefit. (E. coli and other types of bacteria in the human intestines, bee and flower)
A symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed. [birds (egrets) that live near cattle, orchids that grow on trees]
Recycles nutrients by breaking down dead organisms and important to all food webs at all levels.
Eats only plants. They are primary consumers in a food web/food pyramid.
Eats plants and meat. They can be primary or secondary consumers.
Eats only meat. They can be secondary or tertiary (3rd level) consumers.
order of ecological succession of plants
Lichens and mosses on rocks, grasses, shrubs, smaller trees, larger trees (in other words - small to large in size)
Plants and animals release carbon into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide through this process.
Plants and animals REMOVE carbon from the atmosphere (as carbon dioxide) through this process.
The process of water movement through a plant and its evaporation from the plant.
Burning of fossil fuels, which release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere
Growth at an increasingly rapid rate in proportion to the growing total number or size (J-curve on a graph)
The position a species has in its environment - how it meets its needs for food and shelter, how it survives, and how it reproduces.
One animal hunts and feeds on another (lion and zebra, wolves and moose or deer)
Evolution that is characterized by long periods of stability in the characteristics of an organism and short periods of rapid change during which new forms appear (stair-step appearance on a graph).
Evolution that is characterized by a slow, continuous rate of change (straight, upward line on a graph).
Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection
-More individuals are produced each generation that can survive.
-Variation exists among individuals and the variation is heritable.
-Those individuals with traits better suited to the environment will survive and reproduce.
An interaction between organisms in which the fitness of one is lowered by the presence of another due to a limited supply of resources.
A trait that helps an organism survive.
The amount of energy that is transferred from one trophic level to the next in an energy pyramid (moving from the bottom up).
trophic levels from the bottom up
producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers, quaternary consumers
What organism converts nitrogen gas to a usable form for plants?
living things in an environment
Sets with similar terms
Science Q4 Index Cards #'s 120-184, & 188-189
Spring Semester Bio Final
Test 5/15 Vocabulary
Apes Final Ecosystem
Other sets by this creator
Biology Unit 3
Biology Unit 2