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Thackery Clark Spring 2014
Terms in this set (35)
breaks sugar base bond to remove it. This enzymes cleaves Uracil to make AP site
Base excision repair
Repair cases of DNA damage
caused by deamination of C to U
- system used in any situation that produces an AP site ex. aflatoxin (adduct) or spontaneous depurination
cuts on 5' side of AP site- removes base-less nucleotide
This enzyme removes a few nucleotides from the cut (a nick)
Then DNA poly makes the copy
This enzyme sticks the two strands together after Rpase cuts and DNA poly fixes the stuff
Cockayne syndrome and Xeroderma pigmentosum
These Conditions resulting from mutations in genes responsible for nucleotide excision repair.
What are the two types of Nucleotide Excision repair
Global Genomic Repair and Transcription Coupled
Global Genomic Repair
This repair is triggered by helix-distorting damage such as thymine dimers.
- Starts with recognition complex binding to the damage
Transciption coupled Nucleo Exo repair
This repair is triggered by stalled RNA polymerase, stuck during transcription if there is helix distorting damage in the strand being copied.
- Starts with proteins being recruited to stalled RNA pol
Global Genomic Repair Mechanism
This repair mechanism starts with a recognition complex binding to the damage,
Then recruits Transcription Factor II H
Then uses common pathway
Transciption coupled Nucleo Exo repair Mechanism
Starts with CSA & CSB proteins being recruited to stalled RNA polymerase
then TFIIH is recruited
then uses common pathway
This is condition of having a full set of chromosomes
or multiple complete sets
(haploid, diploid, triploid, tetraploid)
This is a special term for a haploid individual in an otherwise diploid species
such as males in hymenoptera (bees, ants, wasps)
What is having one or more single chromosomes missing from a full set called?
An aneuploid condition,
in which a diploid has one chromosome MISSING
An aneuploidy condition,
when a diploid has one EXTRA chromosome
Doubled their chromosomes, this has happened many times in plants (excess of even-numbered haploid chromosome sets).
These dudes have have bigger cells, bigger plants overall because of this
Viable, but sterile
Think bananners and grapes
How to make Seedless fruit
These crosses are used to make diploid x tetraploid cross
Why triploid are sterile
Uneven meiosis 2 copies of each chromosome go to 1 pole. ] Unequal distribution
gametes will almost always produce an inviable zygote
How to make Tetraploids
These can be made by using colchicine
prevents chromosomes from passing to daughter cells
Then go from 2n to 4n because cytokinesis never happens.
This blocks formation of a spindle
These guys have combined chromosome sets from different species.
Can make hybrids fertile,
by doubling all the chromosomes so that each one now has a pair.
This Produces monosomy or trisomy
failure of a pair of chromosomes to separate and move to opposite poles.
Arises from double strand
ACENTRIC [no centromere]
no centromere, chromosome cannot attach to the spindle.
DICENTRIC [two centromeres]
two centromeres- attach to both poles at once during mitosis and get pulled apart, causing a broken chromosome.
When two heterozygotes pair up as best a they can, and they loop and stuff
- crossover in loop gametes abnormal
- crossover outside loop gametes are fine
Cross over outside the loop
When inversion happens like this, the games its fine just cause
Cross over within the loop and centromere in loop
The crossover products will have BOTH deletions and duplications
Cross over within the loop and centromere not in loop
The crossover products will have deletions AND duplications AND either be acentric or dicentric.
do not include the centromere
do include the centromere
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