Observing Learning and Teaching in the Second Language Classroom

Introduction to Linguistics ch5-6
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Terms in this set (...)

grammar translation
teach grammar rules and use translation exercises
audiolingual approach
based on behaviorist theory and structural linguistics, tries to form good habits through repeating after teacher, practice, and memorizing sentence patterns out of context
foreign language learning
learning a language that is not widely used in the area
genuine questions
a question asked to gain information, when the asker doesn't know the answer
display questions
question asked to see what the student's knowledge of language is, the asker knows the answer
negotiation of form
Language learners work together to try to use the right form when they understand the meaning, sometimes the teacher helps to guide the students
uptake
what the learner notices or retains in L2 instruction or input
private speech
how we speak when talking to ourselves without expecting others to be hearing
scaffolding
support for the language learner from the interlocuter to help them to communicate (completing the sentence, helping find the right word)
ethnography
observing from within a group to try to understand the group from their perspective
input flooding
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SIOP
content teaching in L2 with linguistic scaffolding. It uses 8 main components
CALLA
teaching approach that integrates language development with content to help the academic development of non-native speakers
TPR
teaching approach using movement by directing the students
recast
repeating the learner making corrections
Language Development
innate ability to process oral language, metalinguistic language teaching in school and acquisition of written language through at least elementary years for cognitive and academic success in L2
Cognitive Development
developing cognition in L1 is crucial for L2 proficiency
Sociocultural Processes
central to language acquisition and is the social and cultural processes occurring in all contexts of life in past, present and future. They influence the student's response to L2
Academic Development
all school work is most efficiently learned in L1, it will transfer to L2. It expands drastically with each increasing grade in vocab, cognition and sociolinguistic
TPRS
Students learn language through acting out a story that the teacher reads. It is very structured (good for beginning teachers), uses realia
theoretical foundation of TPRS
Innatist, babies learn by taking commands and making communication non-verbally, when older, it should work too
pros of TPRS
more comfortable before speaking
students are interested
rapid vocab and grammar growth
motivating
focus on language use
cons of TPRS
don't learn as much variety in language
not much CALP used
Language Experience Approach
Students work either one on one with teacher or in small groups with teacher and collaborate to make a story about a shared experience as the teacher writes it.
LEA theoretical foundation
Interactionist perspective because the teacher is working at their level, modifying their speech
pros of LEA
make personal connections with L2
good for the illiterate
at learner's level
uses all communication skills and whole language
understandable and accessible
cons of LEA
takes teacher's time
small groups
might not meet state requirements
not always deep, reflective writing
Natural Acquisition Learning Environment
exposed to variety of vocab and grammar structures
errors are not often corrected
immersed in L2
lots of interaction with native speakers
emphasis is on meaning
modified input is available in one-on-one interactions, but not always in larger interactions
Structure-Based Environment
vocab and grammar are taught sequentially
errors are often corrected
emphasis is on accuracy
interaction is limited to in the classroom
little interaction with native speakers
pressured to speak and write correctly in L2
modified L2
instructions given in L1
Communicative Environment
input is simplified and context as well as props are provided to help with comprehension
errors are not always corrected
emphasis is on meaning
interaction is limited to in the classroom
little interaction with native speakers
authentic materials are incorporated into course
little pressure for accuracy
modified input