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Ch 11: Groups In Counseling
Terms in this set (163)
types (6) of groups
3. Encounter Groups
4. Group Marathons
5. Self Help Groups
6. Support Groups
Founded by Jacob Morenzo
Used with mental patients where members enact unrehearsed role-plays.
T-Groups used for
1. Used at the National Training Laboratory, 1946
Was used before group counseling or group psychotherapy
T-Groups - the focus
Task accomplishments or on interpersonal relationships
T-Groups learn - people who use
From their experience how members' behavior influences others in the group
Encounter groups originate from
Encounter groups are used by
Normal functioning individuals who want to:
Used for individual expression and recognition of affect
Group Marathons used by
24 hour session that breaks down barriers
Group Marathons - who benefits
-substance abusers in rehab
- Normal functioning people in group settings
- Labor and peace negotiations
Self- Help Groups
Short or long term groups that help members gain greater control over his or her lives
Support Groups focus on
Focus on a concern or problem. There is an established person, or organization--
Topics are physical, emotional, and social
myths about groups - prevalent
- artificial and unreal
- They are an inferior resolution to problems
- Force people to lose identity by breaking down psychological defenses
- Forces people to be emotional and disclose sensitive info
- Touchy feely, confrontational, hostile, and brainwashing
Two or more people interacting together to achieve a goal by using economical and effective means of helping people with problems.
Groups in counseling involve
- Dynamic interaction between people for prevention Or helping with difficulties, the enhancement of personal growth
- Launches the person forward
- Helps them recognize needs, wants, and what is best
Groups - 5 Ws
- When: schedule a regular time
- Where: must be in a quiet, uninterrupted area (church or recreation area)
- Who: people of equal status
- What: meeting a group of individuals and a facilitator
- Why: to prevent or deal with a difficulty
Groups - theuraputic advantages Works
- Hopeful of getting through a difficult time
- Universality- other people face your problem
- Imparting of info- coping strategies
- Altruism- lending a helping hand
- reviewing past conflicts and resolutions
- Imitating positive behavior
- Interpersonal learning- working past issues
- Group cohesiveness -building bonds
- Catharis- expressing emotions
- Existential Factors- responsibility and choice
Groups - benefits are
Helping high schoolers solve career decisions, promotes career development, help women with functioning and subjective well being, help victims of disease deal with stressors, increase maturation in adolescence
Defensive thinking as a group WITHOUT problem solving
Psychoeducational groups - purpose
To teach group members how to deal with potential threats, developmental events, and/or crisis
Psychoeducational Groups- important parts
**discuss how members will personalize the info presented in the group
Group - How do settings play a role in how the information is presented
- Schools; use instruction materials like puppet plays, interviews, and guest speakers
- Adult Settings; written material or guest lectures
- College Setting; study skills, dating, anger management
Interpersonal problem-solving groups that resolve their problems by interpersonal support and problem solving
Counseling groups better than Psychoeducational groups
They are more direct
- Tries to modify attitudes and behaviors --> emphasis on emotional involvement
- smaller and more intimate setting
- Members get to speak freely
- more interaction and personalization
Personality reconstruction groups that help remediate psychological problems
psychotherapy groups - typical setting
Hospitals, inpatient facilities, psychiatric hospitals, and residential units
psychotherapy groups - problems faced
Depression, incessant talking, paranoia, sociopathic personalities, suicidal individuals, extreme narcissists
* American form of treatment
Task Work Groups
Assists in applying principles and processes of group dynamics to improve practices and accomplish a goal
What are Task Work Groups useful?
Task forces, committees, planning groups, community organizations, discussion groups, study circles, learning groups
Important factors in Task Work Groups
Purpose, balanced info, time for culture building and group bonding, conflict resolution, feedback, reflection on groups
Task Work Groups
Athletic Teams, art, employee settings
Task Work Groups - Quality Circle type
Employee run group of workers who meet weekly to examine the processes they are using in their jobs
- develop ways to improve them
Groups - forming stage
Foundation and expectations are laid out, members show anxiety, depression, and talk about NONPROBLEMATIC issues
- initial caution
R/s focus around historical or future events that don't have an impact on the groups
Deals with apprehension of goals
Groups- storming stage
Turmoil and conflict, members establish themselves in the hierarchy of the group
Balance between too little and too much, more anxious with interactions BC there is a concern for power
Groups - norming stage
Group shows enthusiasms and cohesion
Decides on goals and working together
Groups - performing/ working stage
Productive, involved, and developed individual and collective goals
Groups - termination/mourning stage
Group comes to an end- say goodbye
Members are fulfilled or bitter
Selection and preparation of members, group size and duration, open vs closed groups, confidentiality, physical structure, co leadership, self disclosure, feedback, and follow up
Issues; Selection and preparation of members
Pre group training and pre group interview to maintain the formation of the group
Issues; group size and duration
Determined by purpose and preference.
Optimal group size - 6-8. 10 can be included if long term
Issues; open vs closed groups
Open ended; admit new members afte the group has begun. They can replace lost members and maintain size - long term outpatient
Close ended; not flexible in size. They promote cohesiveness between members and may be productive in helping members achieve goals
What is said within group settings will not be revealed
Issues; physical structure
Room or setting assembled for a group
Issues; co leaders
Could be beneficial if the group is large enough.
- one can work with the group and the other can monitor group progress
- Pair an experienced leader and an inexperienced one
Issues; Self Disclosure
Dependency on trust between members
Response to verbal messages and nonverbal behaviors of others
When feedback is sincere members can see the impact on their actions and change their behavior
Beneficial to the receiver only, effective on a describable behavior, positive feedback, most effective when it follows a stimulus
Issues; follow up
Communication post groups terminates
Group leaders - 4 positive qualities
1. Caring; the more people care the more positive the experience
2. Meaning Attribution- clarifying, explaining, providing cognitive framework for change
3. Emotional Stimulation- activity, challenging, risk taking, self disclosure
4. Executive Function- develop norms, structuring, suggest procedures
Group leaders - Personal Qualities of effective
Presence, personal, power, courage, willingness to confront, security, authenticity, enthusiasm, sense of identity, creative
group work- the future of
Development of new ways of working In groups that are theory driven, focus on solution focused counseling and brief therapy groups
Prevention - the focus
Life skills training, interpersonal communication and human relations, problem and decision making, physical fitness and health maintenance, development of identity and life purpose.
**encouraged by health care
ASGW - Association for Specialists in Group Work
Most established National organization that specializes in group work
Focuses on psychotherapy
1. Shave similar philosophical and operational style
2. Similar experience and competence
3. Establish a model r/s for interactions
4. Awareness of loyalty ties
5. Agree on goals and processed to achieve this- prevents power struggles
Association for Specialists in Group Work
-division of the ACA
-chartered in 1974
Participating in group counseling can provide members with social relationships, emotional bonds and potential for enlightenment
Group counseling pioneers
Joseph Hersey Pratt - credited with the first counseling group - 1905
Jacob L. Moreno - introduced term 'group psychotherapy' in 1920's
Kurt Lewin - field theory concepts in 30's & 40's made way for further group counseling development
Fritz Perls - took a Gestalt approach to groups
W. Edwards Deming - conceptualized & implemented quality work groups to improve group process
William Schultz & Jack Gibb - emphasized humanistic approach to T-groups
Carl Rogers - devised the basic encounter group in 1960's
T = Training
emphasis on how the group operates and on how the individual functions within the group.
-intended for normally functioning people who want to change/grow
-primary emphasis is on individual expression and recognizing affect
organized by professional helping organization/individual
originate spontaneously and stress autonomy and internal group resources
Groups - myths
-artificial and unreal
-second-rate structures for dealing with problems
-force people to lose identity by breaking down psychological defenses.
-require people to become emotional
-touchy-feely, confrontational, hostile, and brainwashing
*In well run groups, none of this is true
groups - the purpose
two or more people interacting together to achieve a goal for their mutual benefit.
groups- Therapeutic factors
-Instillation of hope
-Imparting of information
-Corrective recapitulation of the primary family group
-Development of socializing techniques
Groups can be beneficial for:
-Elementary through high school students
-promoting career development
-adult men and women
-dealing with stressors
-adolescent offenders and many more
-stereotypical, defensive, stale thought processes become the norm
Individuals may not be dealt with in-depth enough
Individuals may try to use group as an escape
-known as guidance groups or educational groups
-preventative and instructional
-purpose is to teach group participants how to deal with potential threats, a developmental life event, and immediate life crises.
-often used in schools, hospitals, mental health centers, social services agencies, and universities
Counseling groups (defined)
-known as interpersonal problem-solving groups
-helps participants to resolve usual yet difficult problems of living through interpersonal support and problem solving
-teaches members problem-solving skills to better handle future problems
-stresses the affective involvement of participants
-may overlap with psychoeducational groups
-known as personality reconstruction groups
-Help individual members remediate in-depth psychological problems
-often takes place in inpatient facilities
Groups - Outpatient group psychotherapy is not suitable for:
-people with extreme narcissism
Groups - Task/Work
Help member apply the principles and processes of group dynamics to improve practices and accomplish identified work goals
Groups - Task/Work work best when in place:
-Purpose is clear to all participants
-Process and content are balanced
-Time is taken for culture building and learning about each other
-Conflict is addressed
-Members exchange feedback
-Leaders attend to here-and-now
-Leaders and members take time to reflect
8-12 individuals discuss a particular topic of interest for 1-2 hours under direction of a group moderator.
Group - Theoretical approach to conducting
Implementation of theoretical approaches differ with groups because of group dynamics.
the interaction of members within a group
Group leaders - Factors to consider on a theoretical approach
-Do I need a theoretical base for conducting the group?
-What uses will the theory best serve?
-What criteria will be employed in the selection process?
Should also consider:
-consensus of experts
-a verified body of knowledge
Groups - Forming
-foundation and expectation are laid out
-members show anxiety, dependency, and
-talk about non-problematic issues
Groups - Storming
-turmoil and conflict occur
-members seek to establish selves in hierarchy of the group
Groups - Norming
-group generates enthusiasm and cohesion
-decides on goals and ways of working together
Groups - Performing/working
-group is productive
-members are involved with each other and individual and collective goals
Groups - Mourning/termination
-group comes to an end
-members say good-bye to one another and the group experience
-members feel fulfilled or bitter
group - issues
-Selection and preparation of group members
-Group size and duration
-Open ended vs. Closed groups
Groups - 4 Leadership qualities for positive effects
Groups -Future of group work
-Groups are becoming more theory driven
-Groups are becoming more preventative
-Groups are headed toward more diversity in theory and practice
Groups - Legal Issues
-Define the minimum standards society will tolerate, which are enforced by the rule of law at the local, state, or federal level.
Groups - Clinical Issues
-Involve using your professional judgment to act in accordance with ethical and legal mandates.
Groups - Informed Consent
-Provide members with adequate information that will allow them to decide if they want to join a group.
Groups - Informed Consent
-The nature of the group
-The goals of the group
-The general structure of the sessions
-What is expected of them if they join
-What they can expect from you as a leader.
Groups - Involuntary Group Members
-Many groups are composed of these
-The challenge is to demonstrate the value of a group for members.
-Basic information about a group is essential.
-Avoid assuming that involuntary members will not want to change.
Group - Potential Risks
-Misuse of power
-Members may be pressured to disclose and violate privacy
-Confidentiality may be broken
-Scapegoating may occur
-Confrontation may be done in an uncaring manner
-Group leaders may not have the competencies to deal with some difficulties that arise in a group
Groups - Confidentiality
-Foundation of a working group
-Leaders need to define the parameters of confidentiality including its limitations in a group setting
-Members need to be taught what confidentiality involves
-Leaders talk to members about the consequences of breaching confidentiality
-Leaders remind members at various points in a group of the importance of maintaining confidentiality
Group - Ethical Issues
-Considerable harm is possible when diversity exists within a group and the leader fails to use a multicultural approach to assessment, diagnosis, and treatment planning.
-Some of the group norms generally associated with group participation may not be congruent with the cultural norms of some clients.
-It is the practitioner's responsibility to have a general understanding of the cultural values of his or her clients, so interventions are congruent with their worldview.
-Achieving cultural competence is a lifelong journey.
-Effective group work involves considering culture of participants.
-Group workers must have awareness, knowledge, and skills to effectively deal with diverse membership.
-Cultural similarities and differences need to addressed in a group.
-Involves a deep understanding of own culture
If a counselor is ___ ...
-Aware of own biases, stereotypes and prejudices.
-Apply skills and interventions that are congruent with members' worldwide
-Engage in experiential activities and personal growth opportunities to increase awareness of different cultures.
-Stay up to date with current readings.
Best Practice Guidelines of .....
-Professional competence in group work is not a final product, but a continuous process for the duration of one's career.
What organization says this....
-Knowledge competencies: course work is essential
-Skills competencies: specific group facilitation skills are required for effectively intervening
-Core specialization in group work: task facilitation groups; psychoeducational groups; counseling groups; psychotherapy groups.
Legal Safeguards for Group Practitioners
-Take time and care in screening candidates for a group; and for preparing them to participate actively
-Demystify the group process
-Strive to develop collaborative relationships with members
-Consult with colleagues or supervisors whenever there is a potential ethical or legal concern
-Incorporate ethical standards in the practice of group work
members enact unrehearsed role-plays, with the group leader serving as the director; other group members are actors in the protagonist's play, give feedback to the protagonist as members of the audience or do both
-originated by Jacob L. Moreno, Vietnamese psychiatrist
-this is popular with behaviorists, Gestaltists, and affective-oriented group leaders who have adapted it as a way of helping clients experience the emotional qualities of an event
T-groups (Training groups)
-appeared at a time when neither group counseling nor group therapy had evolved
-Kurt Lewin's ideas about group dynamics formed the basis from the original groups
-have evolved from a focus on task accomplishment to a primary emphasis on interpersonal relationships
emerged from T-groups in an attempt to focus on the growth of individual group members rather than the group itself
-intended for normal functioning people who wanted to grow, change, and develop
-took many forms from minimally structured to highly structured and open-ended
-an extended, one-session group experience that breaks down defensive barriers that individuals may otherwise use
-lasts for a minimum of 24 hours
-pioneered by Stoller and Bach
-used successfully with substance abuse, in rehabilitation programs, and with well-fuctioning individuals in other settings
-labor and peace negotiations are held in this setting to achieve breakthroughs
take two forms
-those that are organized by an established, professional helping organization or individual (support groups)
-those that originate spontaneously and stress their autonomy and internal group resources (truest sense of group)
-synonymous to mutual health groups
-usually develop spontaneously, center on a single topic, and are led by a layperson with little formal group training but with experience in the stressful event that brought the group together
-work to help the group members gain greater control of their lives
-over 10 million people are involved in approximately 500,000 such groups in the United States, and the numbers continue to increase
Therapeutic factors in a group
-instillation of hope
-imparting of information
-corrective recapitulation of the primary family group
-development of socializing techniques
Instillation of hope
assurance that treatment will work
the realization that one is not alone
Imparting of Information
instruction about mental health, mental illness, and how to deal with life problems
sharing experiences and thoughts with others, helping them by giving of oneself, working for the common good
Corrective recapitulation of the primary family group
reliving early family conflicts and resolving them
Development of socializing techniques
interacting with others and learning social skills as well as more about oneself in social situations
modeling positive actions of other group members
gaining insight and correctively working through past experiences
bonding with other members of the group
experiencing and expressing feelings
accepting responsibility for one's life in basic isolation from others, recognizing one's own mortality and the capriciousness of existence
stereotypical, defensive, and stale thought processes become the norm and creativity and problem solving are squelched
-preventative and instructional
-purpose is to teach group participants how to deal with potential threat, a developmental life event, or an immediate life crisis
-often found in educational settings
-most important process is how members will personalize the information presented in the group context
-brief and only meet for a limited time
how group member interactions influence the development of the group
in which members are more alike than unalike
-there is usually less conflict and risk taking, more cohesion and support, and better attendance
in which members are more unalike than alike
-there is more conflict initially and greater risk taking, but support and cohesion may lag and members may drop out
Ideal group size
-determined by purpose and preference
-a generally agreed upon number is 6-8 members
-Gazda notes that if groups run as long as 6 months, up to 10 people may be productively included
admit new members after they have started
-many long term outpatient groups
no not admit new members after they have started
-not as flexible in size
-promote more cohesiveness among group members and may be productive in helping members achieve stated goals
two or more people interacting together to achieve a goal for their mutual benefit.
Jacob L. Moreno
this person introduced the term "group psychotherapy" into counseling literature in the 1920's
in this type of group members enact unrehearsed role-plays with group leader serving as director. other group members are actors in the protagonist's play, give feedback to protagonist as members of audience or both. Behaviorists, Gestaltists like this type of group work.
this person's field theory concepts in the 1930's and 1940's became the basis for the Tavistock small study groups in Great Britain and the T-group movement in the USA
T stands for training - these groups may be considered the beginning of modern group work - evolved from a focus on task accomplishment to a primary emphasis on interpersonal relationships. Members are likely to learn how one's behavior in a group influences other's behavior and vice versa.
this type of group usually develops spontaneously, centers on a single topic and is led by a layperson with little formal group training but with experience in the stressful event that brought the group together.
this type of group is an extended, one-session group experience that breaks down defensive barriers that individuals may otherwise use. It usually lasts for a minimum of 24 hours. Often used to achieve breakthroughs with labor and peace negotiations.
similar to a self-help group in its focus on a particular concern/problem but an established PROFESSIONAL helping organization or individual (AA, Weight Watchers) organizes it.
what goes on within groups - a broad professional practice involving the application of knowledge and skill in group facilitation to assist an independent collection of people to reach their mutual goals, which may be interpersonal, intrapersonal or work related.
when the foundation of the group is laid down for what is to come and who will be considered in or out of group deliberations.
members express: anxiety, dependency, talk about nonproblematic issues
Leader needs to set out clear structure & model good behavior
when considerable turmoil and conflict usually occur, as they do in adolescence.
members: make some basic decisions about the degree of independence and interdependence in their relationship with one another. seek to establish themselves within group hierarchy
Leader needs to manage conflict & go over rules, unify group
when, similar to young adulthood, having survived the storm the group generates enthusiasm and cohesion. Goals and ways of working together are decided on.
when, parallel to adulthood, group members become involved with each other and their individual and collective goals. This is the time when the group, if it works well, is productive.
Leader needs to encourage goals to be reached & model appropriate behavior
adjourning (mourning) stage
when the group comes to an end and members say good-bye to one another and the group experience. a closure ceremony almost always takes place.
Leader helps bring about closure, arrange for follow-up.
group members should be selected whose needs and goals are compatible with the established goals of the group.
when members learn more about a group and what is expected of them. It provides important information for participants and gives them a chance to lower their anxiety.
members are more ALIKE than unalike. There is usually less conflict and risk taking, more cohesion and support and better attendance.
members are more unalike than alike. Thereis more conflict initially and greater risk taking
groups that admit new members after they have started
groups that DO NOT admit new members after they have started.
a multidimensional process that consists of members' responding to the verbal messages and nonverbal behaviors of one another.
members who drop out or are worse after the group experience.
includes clarifying, explaining, and providing a cognitive framework for change
involves activity, challenging, risk taking, self-disclosure
entails developing norms, structuring, and suggesting procedures
Advantages of group counseling (my opinion, from book)
1) Therapeutic factor of universality - realize you are not alone in your problems
2) Imparting of information - learning from other's experiences who have been through same thing
3) Development of socializing techniques - eye-opening to learn about oneself in a social setting
4) group as Catalyst for change - indivd realizes they want more individ. counslng
5) Groups help Adolescent Offenders - they can relate well to their peers and increases maturational process which is key to growing into a healthy adult.
this type of group seeks to provide information on how to deal with imminent threats, life events or life crises. Brief and informative but doesn't delve deep. seek to facilitate group discussions where info presented is personalized. Public.
this type of group is more emotionally and interpersonally oriented and more focused on direct change of attitudes and behaviors. Less information driven and more intimate setting.
this type of group seeks to delve deep into deeper psychological problems often found in psych. hospitals.
this type of group is like a team - focused on helping each other member to do well, improve practices & accomplish work goals ie. committees, task forces etc.
Nine Issues (group leaders must address for group success)
1) selection and preparation of group members
2) Group size and duration
3) open or closed groups
5) physical structure
Caring (Quality of effective group leader)
showing care for group members
Meaning attribution (Quality of effective group leader)
clarifying, explaining and providing cognitive framework for change.
Emotional Stimulation (Quality of effective group leader)
activity, challenging, risk-taking, self-disclosure
Executive Function (Quality of effective group leader)
entails developing norms, structuring and suggesting procedures.
Group - ethical issue
Pertain to the standards that govern the conduct of professional members. These standards can be found in the ethics code of the various professional organizations.
Group - ethical practice
Engage in experiential activities and personal growth opportunities to increase awareness of different cultures.
-Stay up to date with current readings.
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