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Political Economic Date Review APUSH
Terms in this set (41)
Virginia House of Burgesses = first democratically-elected legislative body in British North America, elected two members from each county in Virginia
Rhode Island formed = Religious Freedom after Roger Williams was banished from Massachusettes bay; developed with the ideal religious toleration, separation of church and state, and political democracy; refuge for people persecuted for their religious beliefs
Bacon's Rebellion = revolt in colonial Virginia because of high taxes, low prices for tobacco, and resentment; failure to defend the frontier against attacks by Native Americans; tensions between the Tidewater Gentry and the Backcountry farmers and Jamestown was burned down.
Zenger Trial = a German immigrant printed the NEW YORK WEEKLY JOURNAL and critized governor of New York, accused the government of rigging elections and allowing the French enemy to explore New York harbor; not guilty because freedom of the press
Boston Tea Party = defiance toward the British government; undercutting American merchants
Articles of Confederation = granted limited powers to the central government, reserving most powers for the states; national government could not tax or regulate interstate commerce
Shays' Rebellion = uprising led by a former militia officer, Daniel Shays in Massachusetts over foreclosures of farms for debt
Federalist Papers = reasons for stronger national government to encourage New York to ratify the Constitution; Anti-federalists opposed ratification and wanted more state's rights
National bank created = Hamilton's Plan to stabilize American economy, promote capitalism, and manufacturing in the U.S; federal assumption of all debts, including state and federal debts
Jefferson Elected = "Revolution of ----" changed power from the Federalists to the Democratic Republicans; Democrats were strict constructionists who wanted to limit federal power, and promote an agrarian society.
Hartford Convention = "killed" the Federalist Party when criticizing the War of 1812 and limit the power of federal government. New England Federalists Merchants were angry over the war and the Embargo Act that Jefferson passed before the war.
McCullough v. Maryland = John Marshall pursued Federalist goals in the Supreme Court after Federalists lost power. Maryland attempted to impede operation of a branch of the Second Bank of the United States by a tax on notes of banks not chartered in Maryland.
Era of Good Feelings = Democratic-Republicans were deeply divided internally and its leaders like Madison incorporated economic policies favored by the Federalists, and built an American System of national economic development. These policies had three basic aspects: a national bank, protective tariffs to support American manufactures, and federally-funded internal improvements.
Election of Jackson = development of the Second Party System of the Jacksonian Democrats vs. the Whigs. Jackson appealed to the "common man" and benefited white male suffrage that got rid of property requirements. The Democrats returned to the Jeffersonian strict constructionism and Jackson vetoed internal improvements and killed the Second National Bank. The Tariff of Abominations led to the Nullification Crisis, over state power.
Panic of 1837 = Jackson's killing of the National Bank, and a bust of the booming "market economy," led to high unemployment (up to 25%), decrease in prices, and collapse of businesses and banks. Van Buren's refusal to use government intervention to address the crisis (such as emergency relief and increasing spending on public infrastructure projects to reduce unemployment) was blamed and he became known as Martin Van Ruin.
Free Soil Party = acquisition of territories from the Mexican American War led to the development of this party that opposed the expansion of slavery in the west. It began due to sectionalism.
Election of Lincoln = Third Party system of the Democrats vs. the Republicans. The Republican Party emerged due to opposition of the Kansas Nebraska Act. The election of Lincoln led to the secession of the first southern states.
Pacific Railroad Act = federal government grant of lands directly to corporations; before that act, the land grants were made to the states, for the benefit of corporation, during this time the railroads received more than 175 million acres of public land - an area larger than the state of Texas.
Freedmen's Bureau = first time the government gave direct aid to citizens. Johnson tried to veto the Freedman's Bureau but radical republicans overturned the veto with a super-majority.
Election of Hayes = compromise, the Republican Candidate was given presidency in disputed election and Democrats were given the concession that troops were removed from the south. The south was "redeemed" and state power was used to enforce Jim Crow laws and segregation.
Pendleton Act = Civil Service reform and attempted to reform the spoils system for government jobs after Garfield is assassinated by a disgruntled office seeker.
Populists Party (People's Party) = represented the common folk—especially farmers—against the entrenched interests of railroads, bankers, processers, corporations, and the politicians in league with such interests. It had success at the state level regulating railroads but this was overturned by the Supreme Court with Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad
Coxey's Army = protest march by unemployed workers from the United States, led by the populist Jacob Coxey. They marched on Washington D.C. in the second year of a four-year economic depression that was the worst in United States history to that time. Federal troops were used to put down this protest, and troops were also used later this year to put down the Pullman Strike
Election of McKinley/ Cross of Gold Speech = William J. Bryan was the Democratic Candidate, who promoted the populist idea of free coinage of silver
Teddy becomes president = after assassination of McKinley. He promoted progressive ideals of conservation, consumer protection, and control of corporations. The Square Deal included enforcement of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act and trust-busting, the Meat Inspection Act, the creation of National Parks, and the arbitration of the Coal Strike.
Election of Wilson = due to the split of the Republican Party between Teddy's Bull Moose Party and Taft.
Schenck v. United States = supports the limitation of freedom of speech during WWI because speaking against the draft was a "clear and present danger"
"Return to Normalcy" = Harding ceased to promise progressive reforms and instead aimed to settle back to Gilded Age Laissez Faire policies. In 1920, after eight years under a progressive Democrat, Americans elected a conservative Republican as president, the first of the decade's three Republican presidents. Big business and advocates of isolationism reaped the benefits of Republican rule. Protectionism continued with the Hawley Smoot Tariff.
Stock Market Crash = over-production of goods, income inequality, and consumer debt helped contribute to this crash. Many banks collapsed because they invested in the stock market. People also bought stock on the margin, and took out loans to buy stocks.
Bonus Army March = 43,000 marchers—17,000 World War I veterans, their families, and affiliated groups—who gathered in Washington, D.C., in the spring and summer of 1932 to demand WWI bonus to help survive the great depression. Hoover used the Army to drive out the marchers and burn down the shanty town.
First 100 Days / First New Deal = FDR had got Congress to pass an legislation that increased the role of the federal government. This era saw the passage of bills aimed at repairing the banking system and restoring American's faith in the economy, starting government works projects to employ those out of work, offering subsidies for farmers, and devising a plan to aid in the recovery of the nation's industrial sector.
Second New Deal = response to the FDR critics. The Works Progress Administration (WPA) was direct assistance from the federal government, hiring nearly 10 million Americans to construct new public buildings, roads, and bridges. Congress dumped over $10 billion into the projects in just under a decade. FDR had to also make adjustments after and the Supreme Court found the AAA and the NRA unconstitutional and his Court-Packing Scheme failed.
Bretton Woods System = Meeting of Western allies to establish a postwar international economic order to avoid crises like the one that spawned World War II. Led to the creation of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank, designed to regulate currency levels and provide aid to underdeveloped countries.
Truman's Fair Deal = extensive social program. Republicans and Southern Democrats keep much of his vision from being enacted, except for raising the minimum wage, providing for more public housing, and extended old-age insurance to many more beneficiaries under the Social Security Act
Interstate Highway act = Eisenhower authorized the construction of 42,000 miles of interstate highways linking all the nation's major cities. This was the largest public works project in U.S. history and was done with grants to the states
Great Society = President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
Election of Nixon/ Silent Majority = after turmoil at 1968 Democratic Convention and other riots, Nixon appealed to law-abiding middle-class Americans who supported both the Vietnam War and America's institutions and appealed to "traditional" values and the vocal minority of civil rights agitators, student protesters, counter-culturists (Hippies) and other seeming disruptors of the social fabric.
Watergate = Nixon was implicated in a cover-up in a break in at the democratic headquarters.
Stagflation = economic problems of inflation and high unemployment were due in part to the exporting of jobs (rustbelt), inflation from government spending, and an energy crisis.
Reaganomics/ Trickle-down Economics = the U.S. moves away from the "liberal consensus" and seeks to solve problems of inflation by cutting the taxes to the rich to create investment in jobs. It also advocated cutting back on social programs to balance the budget, but Reagan's increase in defense spending caused large deficits.
NAFTA = Clinton reversed protectionism and opened free trade in North America
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