30 terms

Cognitive Ch 9

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Categorical perception
Although the speech sounds we actually hear comprise a continuum of variation in sound waves, we experience speech sounds categorically.
Coarticulation
Pronouncing more than one sound at the same time
Communication
Exchange of thoughts and feelings
Comprehension process
Used to make sense of the text as a whole
Connotation
A word's emotional overtones, presuppositions, and other nonexplicit meanings
Content morphemes
The words that convey the bulk of the meaning of a language
Deep structures
In transformational grammar, refers to an underlying syntactical structure that links various phrase structures through various transformation rules
Denotation
The strict dictionary definition of a word
Discourse
Units of language larger than individual sentences
Dyslexia
Difficulty in deciphering, reading, and comprehending text
Function morphemes
Add detail and nuance to the meaning of the content morphemes or help the content morphemes fit the grammatical context
Grammar
The set of rules that govern the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
Language
The use of an organized means of combining words in order to communicate with those around us
Lexical access
The identification of a word that allows us to gain access to the meaning of the word from emmory
Lexical processes
Used to identify letters and words and to activate relevant information in memory about these words
Lexicon
The entire set of morphemes in a given language or in a given person's linguistic repertoire
Morpheme
The smallest unit of meaning within a particular language
Noun phrase
Part of a sentence that contains at least one noun (often the subject of the sentence) and includes all the relevant descriptors of the noun
Phoneme
The smallest unit of speech sound that can be used to distinguish one utterance in a given language from another
Phonemic-restoration effect
Involves integrating what we know with what we hear when we perceive speech
Phrase-structure grammar
Analyze the structure of the phrases as they are used
Phycholinguistics
The psychology of our language as it interacts with the human mind. Considers both production of language and comprehension of language
Referent
The thing or concept in the real world that a word refers to
Semantics
The study of meaning in a language
Surface structure
In transformational grammar, refers to any of the various phrase structures that may result from such transformations
Syntax
The grammatical arrangement of words into a sentence or phrase
Thematic roles
Ways in which items can be used in the context of communication.
Transformational grammar
Idea proposed by Chomsky to supplement the study of phrase structures by suggesting rules that guide the ways in which an underlying proposition can be arranged into a sentence.
Verb phrase
Part of a sentence that contains at least one verb and whatever the verb acts on, if anything
Word-superiority effect
Letters are read more easily when they are embedded in words than when they are presented either in isolation or with letters that do not form words