Terms in this set (27)
the system of words people use to communicate with others.
-the power of it rests in its ability to create images in the minds of listeners. those images inform, persuade, and entertain audience members.
something, such as a word, that stands for something else, such as a person, place, thing, or, idea.
-may also represent ideas that are more abstract, such as freedom, justice, and happiness.
Language is Arbitrary
the vast number of languages suggests this. because there's no direct connection between a word and what it represents, different group of people have different words that stand for the same things.
-communicators use words to stand for their thoughts and ideas. the link between a word and what it stands for always goes through your mind.
Language is Ambiguous
-words have multiple meanings and individuals have their own meanings, or associations, for words and the concepts those words stand for.
refers to form, or literal, meanings - an agreed upon definition of a word found in a dictionary.
a unique meaning for a word based on an individual's own experiences.
use of language to set the mood or atmosphere associated with a speaking situation.
Language is Abstract
some words are fairly specific, while others are more abstract. "living thing" "human being"
Language is Active
as people learn new things about the world and encounter new experiences, they develop new words.
-speakers inform, persuade, and entertain.
-speakers get listeners to think more deeply, laugh out loud, learn something new, change their views, and alter their behaviors.
informal, nonstandard language typically used in an interpersonal setting, such as whatever, all that, and word, is referred to as land. it can hurt your credibility, giving your audience the impression that you're not take the event seriously or are unprepared.
Technical terms and expressions associated with a specific profession or subject
these expression have practical meanings that differ from their literal meanings. "That test was a piece of cake.", Would you lend me your ear for a few minutes?
a word used in place of another word that is viewed as more disagreeable or offensive. "adult films" = pornography; "downsizing" = employee layoffs
an expression so overused it fails to have any important meaning.
- at one point, the remark was original, but overuse has made it dull.
-"the big picture"; "thinking outside the box" "better late than never"
Language and Gender
intersect with public speaking in two ways: How audiences interpret behavior and the language choices speakers make.
how listeners interpret what speakers say can depend on the listeners' gender.
a question added onto the end of a declarative statement that lessens the impact of that statement.
-"This proposal will win over our client, don't you think?"
words that qualify what the speaker is saying.
-a qualifier, such as probably, that makes a statement ambiguous
-often function differently for men than for women
-words that are not associated with either sex.
-used to be sure you're addressing all members of your audience equally
in your speeches, you choose words that don't privilege one group over another.
-noninclusive language promotes discrimination and stereotyping, even if the speaker's word choices are unintentional.
a language device that compares two things that are generally dissimilar but share some common qualities, expressing using like or as.
a langauge device that demonstrates the commonalities between two dissimilar things. "Life is a rollercoaster"
using the same phrase, wording, or clause multiple times to add emphasis.
using words with similar sounds, usually at the end of the word, to emphasize a point.
-used by advertises to embed their products more clearly in our memories
repetition of a sound in a series of words, usually the first consonant.
refers tot he juxtaposition of two apparently contradictory phrases that are organized in a parallel structure.
- the meanings of the phrases are in opposition, but the arrangement of the words within the phrases is in alignment.
-it gets listeners attention because the speaker brings together words in an unexpected, yet balance, way.
invitiations to imagine
asking listeners to create a scene or situation in their minds.