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The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the ________.

loop of Henle, Glomerular filtration membrane

Urine passes through the ________.

pelvis of the kidney to ureter to bladder to urethra

Which of the following is not associated with the renal corpuscle?

a vasa recta

An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to a(n) ________.

increase in the production of ADH

The urinary bladder is composed of ________ epithelium.


The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin ________.

by a decrease in the blood pressure

Which of the choices below is not a function of the urinary system?

eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts and heat

Which gland sits atop each kidney?


The ________ artery lies on the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney.


The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it ________.

drained by efferent arteriole

The descending limb of the loop of Henle ________.

contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla

Select the correct statement about the ureters.

The ureters are capable of peristalsis like that of the gastrointestinal tract.

The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it ________.

stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position

The renal corpuscle is made up of ________.

Bowman's capsule and glomerulus

The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is the ________.


The juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible for ________.

regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic blood pressure

The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is ________.

glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)

Which of the following statements describes the histology of the ureters?

They are trilayered
(mucosa, muscularis, and adventitia).

Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement?

The male urethra serves both the urinary and reproductive systems at the same time.

Which of the following acts as the trigger for the initiation of micturition (voiding)?

the stretching of the bladder wall

The filtration membrane includes all except ________.

renal fascia

The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________.


Most electrolyte reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________.

hormonally controlled in distal tubule segments

The macula densa cells respond to ________.

changes in solute content of the filtrate

Which of the following is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?


The fluid in the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of ________.

plasma protein

Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it ________.

inhibits the release of ADH

The function of angiotensin II is to ________.

constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure

A disease caused by inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by the pituitary gland with symptoms of polyuria is ________.

diabetes insipidus

An important characteristic of urine is its specific gravity or density, which is ________.


Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination from the body.

nephron, collecting duct, minor calyx, major calyx, ureter, urethra

Select the correct statement about the nephrons.

The parietal layer of the glomerular capsule is simple squamous epithelium.

What would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal?

Net filtration would decrease.

Which of the following is not a part of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

podocyte cells

Tubular reabsorption ________.

Water, glucose, amino acids, and needed ions are transported out of the filtrate into the tubule cells and then enter the capillary blood.

Which of the following is not a reason why substances are either not reabsorbed or are incompletely reabsorbed from the nephron?

They are extremely complex molecules

Reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by ________.

secondary active transport

Which of the choices below is a function of the loop of Henle?

form a large volume of very dilute urine or a small volume of very concentrated urine

Fetal kidneys do not have to work very hard because ________.

the placenta allows the mother's urinary system to clear the waste from fetal blood

Which of the following best describes kidney function in older adults (70 years or older)?

Kidney function decreases due to kidney atrophy

The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the ________.

the glomerular hydrostatic pressure

If the Tm for a particular amino acid is 120 mg/100 ml and the concentration of that amino acid in the blood is 230 mg/100 ml, the amino acid will ________.

appear in the urine

If one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does this mean?

Normally all the glucose is reabsorbed

Excretion of dilute urine requires ________.

impermeability of the collecting tuble to water

Which of the choices below is not a method by which the cells of the renal tubules can raise blood pH?

by secreting sodium ions

In the ascending limb of the loop of Henle the ________.

thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption

Select the correct statement about urinary system development.

Kidneys develop from urogenital ridges.

Which of the choices below does not describe the importance of tubular secretion?

ridding the body of bicarbonate ions

Which statement is correct?

Reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled.

What is the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

Is located at the point of contact between the distal convuluted tubule and the afferent and efferent arterioles - Regulate each Nephron.

Which of the choices below is the salt level-monitoring part of the nephron?

macula densa

Which of the hormones below is responsible for facultative water reabsorption?


Which of the choices below is not a glomerular filtration rate control method?

electrolyte levels

Which of the choices below are the most important hormone regulators of electrolyte reabsorption and secretion?

angiotensin II and aldosterone

Which cells of the kidney are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in solute content of the filtrate?

macula densa cells

The body's water volume is closely tied to the level of which of the following ions?

sodium ions

The term hypotonic hydration refers to ________.

A. a condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amounts of water

Hypoproteinemia is a condition of unusually low levels of plasma proteins. This problem is often characterized by ________.

tissue edema

Which of the following hormones is important in the regulation of sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid?


Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that is made in the atria of the heart. The influence of this hormone is to ________.

to reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention

Respiratory acidosis can occur when ________.

a person's breathing is shallow due to obstruction

Which of the following two organs function as the most important physiological buffer systems?

lungs and kidneys

Which of the choices below is not an essential role of salts in the body?

anabolism of proteins

Which of the choices below exerts primary control over sodium levels in the body?


The fluid link between the external and internal environment is ________.


Newborn infants have a relatively higher ________ content in their ECF than do adults.


Whereas sodium is found mainly in the extracellular fluid, most ________ is found in the intracellular fluid.


Which of the following describes the distribution of sodium and potassium between cells and body fluids?

K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the body fluids

Problems with fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance are particularly common in infants because of their ________.

inefficient kidneys

The single most important factor influencing potassium ion secretion is ________.

potassium ion concentration in blood plasma

The term alkaline reserve is used to describe the ________ buffer system.


A falling blood pH and a rising partial pressure of carbon dioxide due to pneumonia or emphysema indicates ________.

respiratory acidosis

The movement of fluids between cellular compartments ________.

is regulated by osmotic and hydrostatic forces

What hormone reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasoconstriction and sodium ion and water retention?

atrial natriuretic peptide

Which of the following is not a method for regulating the hydrogen ion concentration in blood?


Which of the following is not a chemical buffer system?

nucleic acid

Extracellular fluid in the human body is composed of all of the following except ________.

cytoplasm, glucose

Which of the following statements is true regarding fluid shifts?

Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and therefore have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts.

Which of the following hormones is important in stimulating water conservation in the kidneys?

antidiuretic hormone

The maintenance of the proper pH of the body fluids may be the result of ________.

the control of respiratory ventilation

Which of the following is not a disorder of water balance?

excessive hydration due to excess ADH secretion

The regulation of sodium ________.

involves aldosterone, a hormone that increases sodium excretion in the kidneys -- is linked to blood pressure

Select the correct statement about renal mechanisms of acid-base balance.

excessive hydration due to excess ADH secretion

Blood analysis indicates a low pH, and the patient is breathing rapidly. Given your knowledge of acid-base balance, which of the following is most likely?

metabolic acidosis

A patient is breathing slowly and blood pH analysis indicates an abnormally high value diagnosis?

metabolic alkalosis

One of the major physiological factors that triggers thirst is ________.

a rise in plasma osmolality

Annie has just eaten a large order of heavily salted french fries, some pickled eggs, and some cheese. How will consuming this much salt affect her physiology?

There will be a temporary increase in blood volume.

The most important force causing net water flow across capillary walls is ________.

hydrostatic pressure of capillary blood

Which of the following does not depend on the presence of electrolytes?

amount of body fat

The regulation of potassium balance ________.

involves aldosterone

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