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Exam 2

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Golgi apparatus
The delivery sustem of eukaryotic cells called the _____ can collect, package, modify, and transport molecules.
extracellular matrix
Animal cells excrete glycoproteins outside of teh plasma membrane to produce an ______ which is directly linked to the cytoskeleton
rough endoplasmic reticulum
Some ribosomes are embedded into
large molecular aggregates of protein and RNA
Ribosomes are
allow bacteria to pass through unaffected
Lysosomes are vesicles bounded by membranes that contain oxidative enzymes. Their functions include all of the following except they
DNA
Mitochondria and chloroplasts are the other organelles besides the nucleus that contain
a lipid bilayer
Centrioles are organelles which have all of the following except
ribosome assembly
The functions of the cytoskeleton include all of the following except
mitochondria
All of the following are considered to be part of the endomembrane system except
you would be stuck in the golgi
If you were a protein destined to reach the plasma membrane and you were making your way through the golgi when suddenly golgi trafficking was blocked at the trans face , what would happen to you?
phospholipids
The lipid layer that forms the foundation of cell membranes is primarily composed of molecules called
fluid
While water continually orients phospholipides into a lipid bilayer, it does not fix the lipids permanently into position. Thus, the bilayer is considered to be _____ in natu
carrier
Both active transport and facilitated transport utilize specific _____ proteins embedded in the cell membrane
are hydrophobic
Membrane proteins are not very soluble in water, because they prossess long stretches of non-polar amino acids that
isotonic
If a cell has the same concentration of dissolved molecules as of its outside environment, the cells condition is called as being
horomones
What protein class is not found as a membrane protein?
conformation
The actual transport of protons by the proton pump is mediated by a transmembrane protein which undergoes a change in its _____
phagocytosis
The process often thought of a "cell eating" is
3 sodium ions leave and 2 potassium ions enter
In a single sodium-potassium pump cycle, ATP is used up withe the result that
the cell membrane was composed of a phospholipid bilayer with globular proteins actually inserted into the bilayer
The fluid mosaic model proposed by singer and nicolson in 1972 included that
the carrier molecule must be specific to the molecule that is transported. the direction of movement is always with the concentration gradient, never against the gradient
Facilitated diffusion is an important method for cells in obtaining necessary molecules and removing other ones. Requirements for facilitated diffusion include what?
water moves into the cell
As a scientist you perform an experiment in which you create an artificial cell with a selectively permeable membrane through which only water can pass. You put a 5M solution of glucose into the cell and you place that into a beaker of water. What observations do you expect to see?
freeze-fracture allows a cell to be cleaved in between the lipid bilayer, splitting the plasma membrane into two layers
How can freeze-fracture be used to determine the orientation of a protein in a membrane?
the capacity to do work
Energy is defined as
entropy
Free energy is the amount of energy available for the cell to carry out its many chemical processes. It is the difference between the internal energy or enthalpy and ____ or disorder
activation energy
The process fo influencing the chemical bonds in a way that lowers the ___ needed to speed up a chimical reaction is call catalysis
allosteric
Certain key molecules can regulate biochemical pathways by controlling the rates fo enzymatic reactions by binding at ____ sites
endergonic
A chemical reaction which requires energy is called an ____reaction
competitive inhibitor
A molecule that closely resembles the shape fo a substrate for an enzyme might serve as a
electrons
Oxidation and reduction reactions are chemical processes that result in a gain or loss in
is shaped to fit a certain substrate molecule
Enzymes are very specific in their choices of substrates because each different enzyme has an active site that
7.3 Kcal of energy
Under standard conditions, ATP can release fro every molecule converted to ADP
feedback inhibition
The regulation of simple biochemical pathways often involves the end-product binding to the allosteric site of the first enzyme in the sequence. This mode of regulation is called
energy cannot be created or destroyed, just changed from one form to another
The first law of thermodynamics simply states that
decreased enzyme activity
The temperature is raised slightly above the optimum for a specific enzyme. What would you expect to observe as a result of the change in temperature?
the reaction would proceed spontaneously
If the delta G of a reaction was -31.45 kJ, you would know that
S is greater than T
In the hypothetical biochemical pathway, P is greater than Q + R is greater than S is greater than T, which step is likely to have evolved first?
respiration
Simple molecules are further broken down in cells in a process called ____, during which energy stored in their chemical bonds is used to power the production f ATP
pyruvate
In glycolysis, a major portion of the energy remains in the final product, which is called ____
decaarboxylation
For further derivation of energy, aerobic cells must converty pyruvate into acetyl-CoA by stripping off a CO2 molecule. This process is known as ____
glycolysis
The first stage of cellular respiration, _____, occurs with or without oxygen present
a difference in H+ concentration on the two sides of the mitochondrial membrane
Chemiosmotic generation fo ATP is driven by
two turns
A single glucose molecule can drive the krebs cycle
H2O
The oxygen utilized in cellular respiration finally show up as
proton pumps
The electron transport chain, a series of membrane-associated electron carriers, loses most of the energy by driving several transmembrane
matrix of the mitochondria
The enzymes of the krebs cycle are located in the
oxygen
During aerobic respiration the final acceptor of the hydrogen atoms is
glycolysis to pyruvate to acetyl CoA to krebs cycle to electron transport chain
What is the correct sequence concerning glucose catabolism
NAD+
Oxidized form of the most common electron carrier, needed in both glycolysis and krebs cycle
to generate and maintain the protein gradient essential for ATP production
Why are the components of the electron transport chain embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane rather than floating freely in the cytoplasm of the mitochondrial matrix?