ANATOMY CARDIAC REVIEW
Terms in this set (67)
Process of maintaining a constancy of the internal environment.
What are the homeostatic roles of the cardiovascular system?
Temperature, oxygen concentration (delivery and nutrients), pH, ionic composition, and osmolarity.
What is TBW made up of?
40 % solid TBW (bones), 60 % liquid TBW (water).
To what fluid compartment must cells draw their nutrients to?
Interstitial (makes up 16% of TBW).
To what fluid compartment must cells deposit their waste?
Which fluid compartment has very little protein?
Increased iron cause increased risk of what disease?
Which organ is the only organ to receive 100% CO?
What is normal CO?
How is perfusion allocated?
Based on need.
What are blood conditioning organs and what are they responsible for?
Lung, kidney, GI tract, liver, and skin. Responsible for altering the composition of blood. These organs can tolerate decreases in perfusion.
What are the lungs responsible for?
Gas exchange, and metabolism (breaks down epi efficiently, converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II via ACE.
What are the kidneys responsible for?
Major excretory and filtration (cleans blood).
What is the GI tract responsible for?
Nutrition and water intake.
What is the liver responsible for?
Metabolism and creation of proteins and lipids.
What is the skin responsible for?
Temperature and alteration of compounds.
What are organs that have only adequate perfusion and can not tolerate decreased perfusion?
Brain, cardiac muscle, and skeletal muscle.
How can blood flow be changed?
By changing the pressure difference (minor) and by changing the vascular resistance (major).
What is flow controlled by?
maintaining and adequate perfusion pressure, very dependent on the control of the vascular radius, and length and viscosity cannot be altered easily.
How is CO calculated?
HR x SV
Volume per minute (liters/minute).
Beats per minute.
Volume in mL (convert to liters).
How does the blood flow through the heart?
Superior and inferior vena cava, RA, tricuspid valve, RV, pulmonic valve, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins, LA, mitral valve, LV, aortic valve, aorta.
What kind of sac is the pericardial sac?
It is a double sac.
Which arteries are the only arteries to carry deoxygenated blood?
Which veins are the only veins that carry oxygenated blood?
The coronary sinus has the lowest what?
What is the SA node?
The pacemaker of the heart. Initiates the action potential that is conducted through the heart.
What is the function of the AV node?
Creates a slight delay between atrial contraction and ventricular contraction.
What are the functions of the Purkinje fibers?
Specialized for rapid conduction and ensure that all ventricular cells contract at the same time.
What are the 5 requirements of the heart to ensure effective, efficient ventricular pumping action?
Contractions of individual muscle cells must occur at regular intervals and be synchronized (not arrhythmic), valves must fully open, valves must not leak, muscle contractions must be forceful (not failing), ventricles must fill adequately during diastole.
States that the greater the volume of blood entering the heart during diastole (end-diastolic volume), the greater the volume of blood ejected during systolic contraction (stroke volume) and vice-versa.
What happens when sympathetic nerves release norepinephrine on cardiac cells?
The NE interacts with beta 1 adrenergic receptors on cardiac muscle cells to increase the HR, increase the action potential conduction velocity, and increase force of contraction.
What happens when parasympathetic nerves release Ach on cardiac muscle cells?
Decreases the HR (SA node), and decreases the action potential conduction velocity. May also act to decrease the force of contraction of ATRIAL muscle cells.
What is the ductus arteriosus?
A shunt connecting the pulmonary artery to the aortic arch. Open in neonates but becomes the ligamentum arteriosum in adults.
What four things are included in the assessment of the heart?
Afterload, preload, contractility, and HR.
Factors that increase the HR are said to have what?
Positive chronotropic effect.
Factors that decrease HR are said to have what?
Negative chronotropic effect.
Positive Dromotropic Effects
Increases in sympathetic activity increase conduction velocity.
Negative Dromotropic Effects
Increases in parasympathetic activity decrease conduction velocity.
Hyperventilation or too much tidal volume delivered during anesthesia causes what?
The nipple line falls where on the thoracic spine?
The upper body extracts more O2 so would the superior vena cava or the inferior vena cava have a lower O2 sat?
The inferior vena cave is returning blood to the heart from where?
Lower extremities and GI tract through the liver.
What is the function of veins?
Return blood from the hands and upper ext. and from the feet and lower ext. Veins get bigger as they get closer to heart.
What is the superior vena cava?
A large diameter, yet short, vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the upper half of the body to the heart's right atrium.
What forms the superior vena cava?
It is formed by the left and right brachiocephalic veins, (also referred to as the innominate veins) which also receive blood from the upper limbs, head and neck, behind the lower border of the first right costal cartilage.
What is the inferior vena cava (or IVC)?
The large vein that carries de-oxygenated blood from the lower half of the body into the right atrium of the heart.
What is the IVC formed by?
Formed by the joining of the left and right common iliac veins and brings blood into the right atrium of the heart.
What is the coronary sinus?
A collection of veins joined together to form a large vessel that collects blood from the myocardium of the heart.
Where is the descending aorta located?
In the left side of the chest.
What is the mnemonic for how the valves lie in relation to the cephalad and and caudad?
Cephalad-->P-pulmonary A-aortic M-mitral T-tricuspid<--caudad.
What is the mnemonic for how the valves lie in relation to the anterior and posterior?
What is the ascending aorta?
A portion of the aorta commencing at the upper part of the base of the left ventricle.
What is the brachiocephalic artery (or brachiocephalic trunk or innominate artery)?
An artery of the mediastinum that supplies blood to the right arm and the head and neck. It is the first branch of the aortic arch, and soon after it emerges, the brachiocephalic artery divides into the right common carotid artery and the right subclavian artery. There is no brachiocephalic artery for the left side of the body. The left common carotid, and the left subclavian artery, come directly off the aortic arch. However, there are two brachiocephalic veins.
What are the coronary arteries?
These arteries and their branches supply all parts of the heart muscle with blood.
From which vessel do the coronary arteries branch off of?
Two major coronary arteries branch off from the aorta near the point where the aorta and the left ventricle meet.
The right coronary artery branches into?
The right marginal artery and the posterior descending artery.
The right coronary artery supplies?
Blood to the right atrium, right ventricle, and the bottom portion of both ventricles and back of the septum.
The left main coronary artery branches into?
The circumflex artery, and the left anterior descending artery (LAD).
Circumflex artery supplies?
Blood to the left atrium, side and back of the left ventricle.
Left Anterior Descending artery (LAD) supplies?
Blood to the front and bottom of the left ventricle and the front of the septum.
What is the recurrent (inferior) laryngeal nerve?
A branch of the vagus nerve (tenth cranial nerve) that supplies motor function and sensation to the larynx (voice box).
The left laryngeal nerve branches from?
The vagus nerve to loop under the arch of the aorta, posterior to the ligamentum arteriosum before ascending.
Where is the ligamentum arteriosum located?
It's attached to the superior surface of the pulmonary trunk and the inferior surface of the aortic arch near the left subclavian artery.
What are the three vessels that branch from the aortic arch?
The brachiocephalic artery, the left common carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery.