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43 terms

"isms" of history

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Absolutism
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
Anarchism
a political theory favoring the abolition of governments
Anti-Semitism
policies, views, or actions that harm or discriminate against Jews
Chartism
the principles of a body of 19th century English reformers who advocated better social and economic conditions for working people
New Imperialism
Historians' term for the late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century wave of conquests by European powers and the United States, which were followed by the development and exploitation of the newly conquered territories.
Owenism
Utopian socialist philosophy of 19th century social reformer ______ ________ and his followers and successors. Aimed for radical reform of society and is considered a forerunner of the cooperative movement.
Pan-Slavism
A movement to promote the independence of Slav people. Roughly started with the Congress in Prague; supported by Russia. Led to the Russo-Turkish War of 1877.
Positivism
the form of empiricism that bases all knowledge on perceptual experience (not on intuition or revelation)
Communism
a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
Conservatism
a political or theological orientation advocating the preservation of the best in society and opposing radical changes
Post-Impressionism
1885-1920.This is a handy title for what wasn't a movement, but a group of artists (Cézanne, Van Gogh, Seurat and Gauguin, primarily) who moved past Impressionism and on to other, separate endeavors. They kept the light and color Impressionism bought, but tried to put some of the other elements of art - form and line, for example - back in art.
Racism
discriminatory or abusive behavior towards members of another race
Corporatism
a political system in which interest groups become an institutionalized part of the state or dominant political party;public policy is typically the result of negotiations among representatives of the state and key interest groups
Cubism
An Artistic movement that focused on geometric shapes, complex lines, and overlapping planes.
Realism
This was the new style of literature that focused on the daily lives and adventures of a common person. This style was a response to Romanticism's supernaturalism and over-emphasis on emotion
Revisionism
Socialist thought that disagreed with Marx's formulation; believed that social and economic progress could be achieved through existing political institutions.
Deism
The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.
Empiricism
the view that (a) knowledge comes from experience via the senses, and (b) science flourishes through observation and experiment.
Existentialism
A philosophy that values human freedom and personal responsibility. A few well known _______ writers are Jean-Paul Satre, Soren Kierkegaard ("the father of _______"), Albert Camus, Freidrich Nietzche, Franz Kafka, and Simone de Beauvoir.
Romanticism
An artistic and intellectual movement originating in Europe in the late 18th Century and characterized by a heightened interest in nature, emphasis on the individual's expression of emotion and imagination, departure from the attitudes and forms of classicism, and rebellion against established social rules and conventions.
Saint-Simonianism
the earliest socialist pioneer. Fought in a couple of revolutions but then settled down and wrote many political critiques and essays. He believed that private wealth property and enterprise should be managed by a administrater not an individual
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Socialism
a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
Utilitarianism
The theory, proposed by Jeremy Bentham in the late 1700s, that government actions are useful only if they promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
Zionism
A worldwide movement, originating in the 19th century that sought to establish and develop a Jewish nation in Palestine. Since 1948, its function has been to support the state of Israel.
Fabianism
a British intellectual socialist movement, whose purpose is to advance the principles of Social democracy via gradualist and reformist, rather than revolutionary means. It is best known for its initial ground-breaking work beginning late in the 19th century and continuing up to World War I. The society laid many of the foundations of the Labour Party and subsequently affected the policies of states emerging from the decolonisation of the British Empire, especially India.
Fascism
A system of government characterized by strict social and economic control and a strong, centralized government usually headed by a dictator. First found in Italy by Mussolini.
Feminism
the belief that women should possess the same political and economic rights as men
Fourierism
founded by Charles Fourier. he believed that the industrial order ignored the passionate side of human nature. Social discipline ignored all the pleasures of human being naturally seek. He advocated phalanxes in which agrarian labor dominated and people could rotate tasks throughout the day
Humanism
an intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on education and the classics
Imperialism
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
Impressionism
Major Western artistic style that gained prominence in the second half of the 1800s and into the 1900s.Against Realism, visual impression of a moment, style that seeks to capture a feeling or experience, often very colorful.
Jansenism
A branch of Catholicism which resembled Protestantism. Emphasized need for God's grace in achieving salvation and the importance of original sin. Louis XIV took special actions to restrict the rights of this group and force them underground.
Liberalism
A political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of citizens, representative government, and the protection of private property. This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property-owning middle classes.
Mannerism
Artistic movement against the Renaissance ideals of symetry, balance, and simplicity; went against the perfection the High Renaissance created in art. Used elongated proportions, twisted poese and compression of space.
Marxism
the economic and political theories of ______ __________and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded
Mercantilism
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
Methodism
the religious beliefs and practices of Methodists characterized by concern with social welfare and public morals
Militarism
a political orientation of a people or a government to maintain a strong military force and to be prepared to use it aggresively to defend or promote national interests
Modernism
practices typical of contemporary life or thought
Nationalism
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
Naturalism
A term often used as a synonym for realism; also a view of experience that is generally characterized as bleak and pessimistic.
Nazism
a form of socialism featuring racism and expansionism, The doctrines of nationalism, racial purity, anti-Communism, and the all-powerful role of the State. The National Socialist German Workers Party encouraged this and it was advocated by Adolf Hitler in Germany.