Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads


The belief in the 1830s that through individual reformation and social reform, society could be made ready for the Second Coming of Christ -the millennium.


First third party in American history, which expressed American resentment against secret societies and reflected tensions over commercialization.

rotation system

The Jacksonians' label for changing appointed political officeholders with each administration through the use of what later came to be called a spoils system (to the victor goes the spoils).

Bank War

The battle between Jackson and his supporters and Nicholas Biddle and his supporters over the recharter of the Second Bank of the United States. Jackson vetoed the recharter bill and effectively "killed" the bank.

William Lloyd Garrison

Abolitionist leader, publisher of "The Liberator", and founder of the American Anti-Slavery Society who advocated immediate emancipation of the slaves.


The development of utopian societies in an effort to offer model alternatives to a flawed world. Those founded in the early nineteenth century were both religiously and secularly based.

second party system

The new two-party system which resulted with the emergence of the Whigs and Democrats in the 1830s.

National Trades Union

The first national labor organization in the United States founded in 1834 which advocated shorter hours, better wages, and ways to ward off the competition of cheap labor.

Dorothea Dix

Leader of the early-nineteenth-century effort to improve conditions in asylums and prisons to promote rehabilitation of their inmates.

Webster-Hayne debate

Senate exchange in 1830 which resulted from a controversy involving public land policy in which Senator Hayne supported the doctrine of nullification while Daniel Webster defended the Union.


Individuals who, while seriously divided amongst themselves, wanted an immediate and total end to slavery.

Worcester v. Georgia

Supreme Court decision in 1832 which overturned a Georgia law denying the sovereignty of the Cherokee people. Goergia lawmakers and President Jackson ignored the ruling.


New England romantic intellectuals who believed that truth was found beyond experience in intuition through self-reflection.

Robert Owen

Secular communalist who attempted to create a model society with good schools and healthy work for all citizens in New Harmony, Indiana.

Trail of Tears

The forced removal of the Cherokee west of the Mississippi River. The US Army "escorted" the tribes from their ancestral lands. Many died on the way.

Seneca Falls Convention

Meeting convened in 1848 in New York by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott to discuss problems confronting women, which issued the Declaration of Sentiments concerning the treatment of women and inaugurated the women's rights movement.

Jacksonian Democrats

Political party in the antebellum period which espoused personal liberty and local rule, emphasized the freedom of the individual to follow his own interests, and appealed primarily to the common man.

Specie Circular

Jackson's announcement that the government would accept only gold and silver in payment for public lands. Its deflationary consequences helped cause the Panic of 1837.

American Temperance Society

Organization founded in 1826 which was dedicated to abstinence, that is, the total elimination of the consumption of alcohol. Its efforts significantly reduced the volume of alcoholic consumption in the United States.

Charles G. Finney

Evangelical revivalist of the Second Great Awakening who emphasized individual conversion, collective reform and the perfection of society.

Tariff of Abominations

High protective tariff passed in 1828 that was designed to win votes for Andrew Jackson's presidential campaign.


Religious movement which wought to change the world in preparation for the Second Coming of Christ.

Ordinance of Nullification

Declaration by a South Carolina state convention which stated the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were null and void (nullified) and would not be enforced in the state.

Maysville Road bill

An internal improvements bill that authorized construction of a road in Kentucky which was vetoed by Jackson as unconstitutional, although he signed other federal internal improvements legislation.


Antebellum political party which endorsed Henry Clay's American System, advocated politics as a vehicle for the reform of society, and opposed Jackson and increases in the power of the executive branch of government.

Henry David Thoreau

Transcendentalist who wrote "On Civil Disobedience" and "Walden" and who attempted to live a life of principle in protest of unjust laws and wars.

log cabin campaign

The 1840 presidential compaign between Martin Van Buren and William Henry Harrison, which presented Harrison as a man with common (log cabin and hard cider) origins.

Exposition and Protest

Anonymous essay published by John C. Calhoun in 1828 which advocated the doctrine of nullification as a means by which states could protect themselves from harmful national action.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

Voice Recording