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MBioS 305 Final
Terms in this set (53)
In order to produce viral proteins within a cell infected with influenza virus, the virus
Converts ss(-)RNA directly into mRNA
For all viruses, the first step in host cell infection is
Binding of viral envelope proteins to host-cell membrane components with high affinity
Some enveloped viruses fuse with host-cell membranes directly, allowing
viral envelope proteins to be displayed on the infected host cell
To enter a cell, adenovirus
uses host-cell receptors to direct an endosome to fuse with the host-cell nuclear membrane
A drug company has developed an antiviral compound that works on both rhinovirus and polio virus-infected cells, but not cells infected with other viruses. This new compound likely inhibits
viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase
When influenza virus disease damages ____, the majority of damage is caused by ____.
1.) epithelial cells of the bronchi, inflammation induced by anti-viral immune responses.
2.) lung function(s), viral infection directly killing host cells.
In order to leave infected cells, influenza virions use
In 1918, influenza spread to every county in the USA in a timespan of
Influenza evades ____ by ____.
adaptive immunity; antigenic drift
Antiviral drugs administered to patients with acute influenza symptoms
inhibit enzymes on the surface of new viral particles
In 1918, influenza was most accurately describes as
Which of the following is an aspect of only innate immunity and not adaptive immunity?
Keeps microbes from entering using physical barriers
One difference between innate and adaptive immune response is
1.) the changes in responses after re-exposure to the same molecular shape
2.) the timing of the responses
Which of the following terms describes a basophil?
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between the innate and adaptive divisions of the immune system?
Both the innate and adaptive systems have components with unique functions an both have components that collaborate together.
Which of the following is an example of adaptive immunity only?
Antibody released by B lymphocytes with precision that can distinguish between para- and ortho- forms of dinitrobenzene
On the surface of human skin
secreted lipids are able to disrupt the membranes of microbes but do not damage skin cells
On human mucosal surfaces
1.) mucus contains antimicrobial biochemicals to reduce microbial growth
2.) mucus is thick and provides a physical barrier
3.) physical features limit microbe access, such as the many channels in the nasal sinuses
4.) conditions can favor non-pathogenic microbial growth
Although many microbes are ingested with food, few pathogenic microbes survive
1.) the mechanical action of the stomach
2.) the changes in pH of the digestive system
3.) the anti-microbial secretions throughout the digestive system
The immune system sequesters iron (Fe2+) ions because
pathogens require iron for catabolism
Lysozyme breaks brands connecting ____ in bacteria.
cell wall sugars
Compared to E. coli, most phagocytes are
four times the size of E. coli
In comparing the blood of a person suffering from chronic parasite diseases to the blood of a normal healthy person without parasites, you would predict
1.) increased serum protein levels of IgE specific for parasites in the infected person
2.) an increased proportion of eosinophils in a parasite-infected person
Using a microscope to examine a stained blood sample from a normal health person, what features would you associate with neutrophil cells?
Lobed nuclear morphology that differs in each cell.
All granulocytes are professional phagocytes
The relationship between monocytes and tissue-resistant dendritic cells is
all dendritic cells are tissue-resident monocytes
Which of the following is NOT commonplace in the lymph fluid of the lymphatic system?
red blood cells (RBCs)
nearby capillaries become more permeable
Which of the following steps in the complement pathway amplifies the pathway's response?
C3b cleaving multiple C5 molecules
Both Natural Killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic CD8 + killer T cells
1.) move throughout the body checking every nucleated cell for infection
2.) respond after detecting signs of infection by killing the cell with infection
A fever response
is always an innate immune function
Every tissue supplied with blood is protected by the complement sensor system
Complement protein C5b
1.) Is not an active enzyme
2.) Initiates formation of a pore in the cell membrane by recruiting other complement proteins
When a microbe-laden splinter pierces your normal, healthy fingertip and pushes microbes deep into the tissue
subsequent inflammation recruits and activates white blood cells from nearby capillaries
Inflammation can occur in cases either with or without microbial infection. What occurs in either case?
Bradykinin activity to increase inflammation
What material has been "opsonized" it is
more rapidly engulfed by phagocytes
Live microbes engulfed by a phagocyte are rapidly subjected to ____ inside the mature phagolsosome.
Large declines in frequency of disease cases following vaccination program initiation targeting that disease relies on
1.) Reliable, retrospective epidemiology data
2.) High compliance rates among the population surveyed
The main regulator of all adaptive immune responses is
CD4+ T-helper cells
The relationship between "antigen" and "antibody" is best described as antibody
partners with antigen in binding
Compared to other types of antibody, neutralizing antibodies
can block the biological function of a microbial molecule
The Fc portion of an antibody molecule
is made up of only heavy chains
A month after exposure to a particular antigen, the adaptive immune system has changed so that it
1.) has a higher frequency of B cells specific for that particular antigen
2.) has a higher frequency of T cells specific for that particular antigen
3.) has a higher concentration of serum antibodies specific for that particular antigen
The antigen-binding site of one antibody molecule is made up of:
1.) light chain variable regions
2.) heavy chain variable regions
A drug that is an F(ab)2 antibody fragment has ____ antigen binding sites.
Before you travel to another country that has different pathogens than Pullman, you need to be vaccinated ____ in advance.
In order to properly stimulate antigen-specific B cells, most adaptive responses require production of ____ in advance of B-cell stimulation.
CD4+ T-helper Type 2 cells
Which of the following statements is/are true?
MHC Class I molecules bind CD8 molecules
The third required signal to activate naive B lymphocytes is
IL-4 from a TH2 cell binding to the IL-4 receptor on a B cell
Comparing active immunity to passive immunity
Only active immunity confers long-lasting adaptive responses
Patients infected with HIV that suffer from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
cannot make new adaptive immune responses effectively to survive.
The new "home saliva test" for HIV detects
Anti-HIV IgA dimers
Influenze is classified as Group ____ in the Baltimore genomic nucleic acid classification because influenza is a ____.
Recommended textbook explanations
Campbell Biology (AP Edition)
Cain, Jackson, Minorsky, Reece, Urry, Wasserman
Miller and Levine Biology
Joseph S. Levine, Kenneth R. Miller
Modern Biology: Student Edition
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Biocalculus: Calculus, Probability, and Statistics for the Life Sciences
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