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64 terms

Physical Assessment

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accommodation
(physiology) the automatic adjustment in focal length of the lens of the eye
aneurysm
a cardiovascular disease characterized by a sac-like widening of an artery resulting from weakening of the artery wall
anosmia
absence of the sense of smell (as by damage to olfactory nasal tissue or the olfactory nerve or by obstruction of the nasal passages)
assessment
nursing, the portion of the nursing process that includes collecting and verifying data and analyzing the data as a basis for developing a patient's plan of care
auscultation
listening for sounds within the body, usually with a stethoscope or an ultrasound blood-flow detector (Doppler)
bronchial breath sounds
medium-pitched and quieter sounds normally heard over the mainstem bronchi
bruit
blowing or swishing sounds that reflect turbulent blood flow
cognitive
relating to all aspects and processes of perceiving, thinking, and remembering
bronchovesicular breath sounds
loud , high pitched hollow sounds normally heard over the trachea and the large bronchi.
affect
the external expression of enotion attached to thoughts, mood and ideas
clubbing
enlargement of the fingertips and flattening of the angle between the fingernail and the nailbed, a classic sign of long-term oxygen deprivation
cognitive
relating to all aspects and processes of perceiving, thinking and remembering
conjunctiva
the delicate membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the exposed surface of the sclera
crepitus
a dry, crackling or grating sound produced by air in subcutaneous tissue, by air moving through fluid in the alveoli of the lungs or by bone rubbing against bone.
distal
farthest from the origin of a part
edema
an accumulation of excess interstitiial fluid, usually in the subcuteneous tissues
erythema
redness of the skin produced by capillary congestion
extraocular muscles
a set of six muscles, innervated by the cranial nerves that move the eyes in a conjugate(parallel) manner
exudate
any material such as fluid, cells or cellular debris that has escaped from blood vessels and has been deposited in tissues or on tissue surfaces, usually as a result of inflammation
friction rub
a scratching or squeaking sound that persists throughout the respiratory cycle and does not clear with coughing
gingiva
gums surrounding the teeth
habitus
posture or position of the body: body build and constitution
hernia
the protrusion of a loop or portion of an organ or tissue through an abnormal opening
integument
skin
ischial tuberosity
a large protuberance on the inferior part of the posterior margin of the body of the ischium, the three major bones that make up each half of the pelvis
kyphosis
excessive convex curvature of the thoracic spine when viewed from the side
masseter muscle
the muscle that closes the mouth and is the mjor muscle involved in mastication (chewing)
murmur
a heart sound that can be benign or pathologic
naris
one of the external orifices of the nose
nystagamus
rapid, repetitive involuntary, rhythmic movement of the eyeball
otoscope
instrument used to examine the ears
pallor
paleness: a decrease or absence of skin coloration
palepebral fissure
the longitudinal opening between the eyelids
patent
open or unobstructed
peristalsis
the waves of contraction that propel contents through the gastrointestinal tract
plantar
pertaining to the sole of the foot
pneumothorax
an accumulation of air or gas in the plueral space
precordium
the region of the anterior surface of the body covering the heart and the stomach
proximal
nearest to the origin of a part
psychomotor
pertaining to motor effects of cerebral psychic activity
ptosis
drooping of the upper eyelid
purulent
containing pus
rales
crackles, dounds heard primarily during inhalatin and resulting from air bubbling through mositure in the alveoli or from collapsed alveoli popping open
rebound tenderness
pain that increases when pressure (as from a hand) is removed
regurgitation
valvular , backward flowing of blood through the orifices of the heart valves due to abnormal closing of the valves
rhonchi
dry, low-pitched, snore-like noises produced in the throat or bronchial tubve due to a partial obstruction such as secretions
scaphoid
shaped like a boat
sclera
the tough, white outer coat of the eyeball
scoliosis
lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine
septum
nasal, a dividing wall or partition, such as the structure that separtes the two nares
speculum
an instrument that exposes the interior of a passage or cavity of the body by enlarging its opening
stenosis
an abnormal narrowing of a duct, canal or blood vessel
stridor
a harsh, high pitched sound such as that heard on inhalation with an acute laryngeal obstruction
tandem walking
placing the heel of one foot in front of and touching the toes of the other foot and repeating the process to walk in a straight line , used as a test of gait and sobriety
tangential lighting
a source of illumination directed from an angle to the side of what is being examined,
temporal
pertaining to the lateral region of the head
temporal muscle
muscle that arises in the temporal fossa and inserts into the lower jaw and closes the jaw
thorax
chest
thrill
a sensation fo vibration felt on palpation such as over the heart during loud, harsh cardiac murmurs
tripod position
a psoture that uses three points of support
ulnar
the larger of the two bones in the forearm on the side opposite that of the thumb
uvula
pendent, fleshy mass, most often used to refer to the one hanging from the soft palate above the root of the tongue
vesicular breath sounds
soft , fine,breezy, low pitched sounds heard over peripheral lung tissue
wheeze
a whistling noise with a high pitch, generalted by air flowing through narrowed airways