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the complex structure of offices, tasks, rules, and principles of organization that are employed by all large-scale institutions to coordinate the work of their personell


the efforts of departments and agencies to translate laws into specific bureaucratic routines


A quasi-legislative administrative process that produces regulations by government agencies

administrative adjudiction

the application rules and precedents to specific cases to settle disputes with regulated parties

clientele agencies

departments or bureaus of government whose mission is to promote, serve, or represent a particular interest

regulatory agencies

departments, bureaus, or independent agencies whose primary mission is to eliminate or restrict certain behaviors defined as negative in themselves or negative in their consequences

administrative legislation

rules made by regulatory agencies and commissions

Federal Reserve System (the Fed)

consisting of twelve Federal Reserve districts, the Fed facilitates exchanges of cash, checks and credit; it regulates member banks; and it uses monetary policies to fight inflation and deflation

bureaucratic drift

the oft-observed phenomenon of bureaucratic implementation that produces policy more to the liking of the bureacracy than to the original intention of the legislation that created it, but without triggering a political reaction from elected officials

coalition drift

the prospect that enacted policy will change because the composition of the enacting coaltion is temporary and provisional


the effort by Congress, through hearings, investigations, and other techniques, to exercise control over the activities of executive agencies


the policy of reducing or eliminating regulatory restraints on the conduct of individuals or private institutions


the policy of removing a program from one level of government by deregulating it or passing it down to a lower level, such as from the national government to the state and local governments


the act of moving all or part of a program from the public sector to the private sector

police patrol oversignt

Congress systematically initiates investigation into the activity of agencies

fire alarm

members of Congress do not initiate investigations but wait for adversely affected citizens or interest groups to bring bureaucratic perversions of legislative intent to the relevent Congressional committee

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