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76 terms

Ch. 20 - Vocabulary

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computed tomography (CT)
diagnostic x-ray procedure whereby a cross-sectional image of a specific body segment is produced
contrast studies
radiopaque materials (contrast media) are injected to obtain contrast with surrounding tissue when shown on the x-ray film
gamma camera
machine to detect gamma rays emitted from radiopharmaceuticals during scanning for diagnostic purposes
gamma rays
high-energy rays emitted by radioactive substances in tracer studies
half-life
time required for a radioactive substance to lose half its radioactivity by disintegration
interventional radiology
therapeutic or diagnostic procedures performed by a radiologist
in vitro
process, test, or procedure is performed, measured, or observed outside a living organism, often in a test tube
in vivo
process, test, or procedure is performed, measured, or observed within a living organism
ionization
transformation of electrically neutral substances into electrically charged particles
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
magnetic field and radio waves produce sagittal, coronal, and axial images of the body
nuclear medicine
medical specialty that studies the uses of radioactive substances (radionuclides) in diagnosis of disease
positron emission tomography (PET)
positron-emitting radioactive substances given intravenously create a cross-sectional image of cellular metabolism based on local concentration of the radioactive substance
radioimmunoassay
test combines radioactive chemicals and antibodies to detect minute quantities of substances in a patient's blood
radioisotope
radioactive form of an element substance; radionuclide
radiolabeled compound
radiopharmaceutical; used in nuclear medicine studies
radiology
medical specialty concerned with the study of x-rays and their use in the diagnosis of disease; includes other forms of energy, such as ultrasound and magnetic waves
radiolucent
permitting the passage of x-rays. Radiolucent structures appear black on x-ray film
radionuclide
radioactive form of an element that gives off energy in the form of radiation; radioisotope
radiopaque
obstructing the passage of x-rays. Radiopaque structures appear white on the x-ray film
radiopharmaceutical
radioactive drug (radionuclide plus chemical) that is administered safely for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes; a radiotracer
scan
image of an area, organ or tissue of the body obtained from ultrasound, radioactive tracer studies, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging
single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
radioactive tracer is injected intravenously and a computer reconstructs a 3D image based on a composite of many views
tagging
attaching a radionuclide to a chemical and following its path in the body
tracer studies
radionuclides are used as tags, or labels, attached to chemicals and followed as they travel through the body
transducer
handheld device that sends and receives ultrasound signals
ultrasonography (US, U/S)
diagnostic technique that projects and retrieves high-frequency sound waves as they echo off parts of the body
uptake
rate of absorption of a radionuclide into an organ or tissue
ventilation-perfusion studies
radiopharmaceutical is inhaled (ventilation) and injected intravenously (perfusion) followed by imaging its passage through the respiratory tract
mammography
uses low-dose x-rays to visualize breast tissue
Barium Sulfate
a radiopaque medium that is mixed in water and used for examination of the upper and lower GI tract
upper GI series (UGI)
procedure that involves oral ingestion of barium sulfate so that the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum can be visualized
small bowel follow-through (SBFT)
procedure used to trace the passage of barium in a sequential manner as it passes through the small intestine
barium enema (BE) study
lower GI series that opacifies the lumen of the large intestine using an enema containing barium sulfate
double-contrast study
uses both a radiopaque and a radiolucent contrast medium
Iodine Compounds
radiopaque fluids containing up to 50% iodine
angiography
X-ray image (angiogram) of blood vessels and heart chambers is obtained after contrast is injected through a catheter into the appropriate blood vessel or heart chamber
coronary angiography
X-ray image (angiogram) which determines the degree of obstruction of the arteries that supply blood to the heart
cholangiography
X-ray imaging after injection of contrast into bile ducts
digital subtraction angiography (DSA)
X-ray image of contrast-injected blood vessels is produced by taking two X-ray pictures and using a computer to subtract obscuring shadows from the second image
hysterosalpingography
X-ray record of the endometrial cavity and fallopian tubes is obtained after injection of contrast material through the vagina and into the endocervical canal
myelography
X-ray imaging of the spinal cord after injection of contrast agent into the subarachnoid space surrounding the spinal cord
pyelography
X-ray imaging of the renal pelvis and urinary tract
digital imaging techniques
methods used to enhance conventional and fluoroscopic x-ray images
fluoroscopy
use of x-rays and a fluorescent screen to produce real-time video images
radiofrequency ablation
removal of tumors and tissues using interventional radiologic assistance
sonogram
the record produced by ultrasound
echocardiography
use of ultrasound techniques to detect heart valve and blood vessel disorders; gastroenterologists use it to locate abdominal masses outside the digestive organs
endoscopic ultrasonography
technique in which a small ultrasound transducer is installed on the tip of an endoscope and inserted into the body; used to obtain detailed images of the digestive & respiratory systems
gadolinium (Gd)
most commonly used contrast agent in performing MRIs
posteroanterior (PA) view
most commonly requested chest x-ray view; rays travel from a posteriorly placed source to an anteriorly placed detector
anteroposterior (AP) view
x-rays travel from an anteriorly placed source to a posteriorly placed detector
left lateral view
x-rays travel from a source located to the right of the patient to a detector placed to the left of the patient
right lateral view
x-rays travel from a source located to the left of the patient to a detector placed to the right of the patient
oblique view
x-rays travel in a slanting direction at an angle from the perpendicular plane; oblique views show regions or structures ordinarily hidden and superimposed in routine PA / AP views
abduction
movement away from the midline of the body
adduction
movement toward the midline of the body
eversion
turning outward
extension
lengthening or straightening a flexed limb
flexion
bending a part of the body
inversion
turning inward
lateral decubitus
lying down on the side (with the x-ray beam horizontally positioned)
prone
lying on the belly
recumbent
lying down (may be prone or supine)
supine
lying on the back
radioactivity
the spontaneous emission of energy in the form of particles or rays coming from the interior of a substance
perfusion studies
passage of the radioactive compound through the capillaries of the lungs
ventilation studies
inhalation of a gas or aerosol which fills the alveoli of the lungs
bone scan
Technetium (99mTc) is used to label phosphate substances and then is injected intravenously. The phosphate compound is taken up by bone, and the skeleton is imaged in 2 to 3 hours
lymphoscintigraphy
type of nuclear medicine imaging that provides pictures (scintigrams) of the lymphatic system
sentinel lymph node
the first lymph node to receive lymph drainage from a tumor
technetium Tc-99m sestamibi (Cardiolite)
this radiopharmaceutical is injected intravenously and traced to heart muscle
ETT-MIBI scan
an exercise tolerance test (ETT) is used with a technetium Tc-99m sestamibi (Cardiolite) scan
multiple gated acquisition (MUGA) scan
99mTc is injected intravenously to study the motion of the heart wall muscle and the ventricle's ability to eject blood (ejection fraction)
thallium (Tl) scan
Thallium-201 (201Tl) is injected intravenously to evaluate myocardial perfusion
thyroid scan
an iodine radionuclide, usu. iodine-123 (123I), is administered orally, and the scan reveals the size, shape, and position of the thyroid gland
radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) study
performed to assess the function of the thyroid gland; patient is given radioactive iodine (131I) and a probe is placed over the thyroid gland