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Constitutional Amendments (1-27)
10th Amendment Powers not expressly given to federal government by the Constitution are reserved to states or the people. Also known as "reserved powers amendment" or "states' rights amendment"
13th Amendment Abolished slavery. First of three "Reconstruction Amendments" passed after Civil War (1865-70)
14th Amendment (1) All persons born in the U.S. are citizens; (2) no person can be deprived of life, liberty or property without DUE PROCESS OF LAW; (3) no state can deprive a person of EQUAL PROTECTION of the laws. Second of three "Reconstruction Amendments" passed after Civil War.
15th Amendment States cannot deny any person the right to vote because of race. Third of three "Reconstruction Amendments" passed after Civil War. First Voting Rights Amendment (with 19, 24 & 26)
16th Amendment Power of Congress to tax income
17th Amendment Established the direct election of senators (instead of being chosen by state legislatures)
19th Amendment States cannot deny the right to vote based on gender
1st Amendment Freedom of religion (establishment & free exercise clauses), speech, press, assembly, and petition.
22nd Amendment Limits the president to two terms.
23rd Amendment Gives Washington DC electoral college votes as if it were a state (DC still has no representation in Congress)
24th Amendment Abolishes poll taxes
26th Amendment States cannot deny the right to vote based on age (18+)
2nd Amendment Right to arm bears. Supported by National Rifle Association interest group & Republican Party.
4th Amendment No "unreasonable" searches and seizures. Exclusionary rule (Weeks v. US, Mapp v. Ohio)
5th Amendment (1) No Self-Incrimination (Miranda)
(2) No Double Jeopardy (defendant cannot be tried again on the same, or similar charges)
(3) No deprivation of life liberty or property without "due process of law" (fair treatment)
6th Amendment The right to counsel in criminal trials. Gideon v. Wainwright held that states must provide indigent defendants with a free lawyer ("public defender"). Right to jury in criminal trials.
7th Amendment Right to jury in civil trials.
8th Amendment Government cannot inflict cruel and unusual punishment. Meaning of "cruel" based on "evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing society." Categorical bans on death penalty: juveniles, retarded, non-murder crimes...
9th Amendment Unenumerated Rights Amendment. Citizens have unenumerated rights in addition to those stated in the Constitution. Not been developed by Supreme Court (too open ended)