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34 terms

Chapter 4: Cells and Energy

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ATP
Molecule that transfers energy from breakdown of food molecules to cell processes
ADP
Lower-energy molecule that can be converted with ATP by the addition of a phosphate group
Chemosynthesis
Process by which ATP is synthesized by using chemicals as an energy source instead of light
Photosynthesis
Process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy; produces sugar and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water
Chlorophyll
Light-absorbing pigment molecule in photosynthetic organisms
Thylakoid
Membrane-bound structure within chloroplasts that contains chlorophyll and other light-absorbing pigments used in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis
Light Dependent Reactions
Part of photosynthesis that absorbs energy from sunlight and transfers energy to light-dependent reactions
Light Independent Reactions
Part of photosynthesis that uses energy absorbed during the light-dependent reactions to synthesize carbohydrates
Photosystem
Series of light absorbing pigments and proteins that capture and transfer energy in thylakoid membrane
Electron Transport Chain
Series of proteins in thylakoid and mitochondrial membranes that aid in converting ADP to ATP by transferring electrons
ATP Synthase
Enzyme that catalyzes reaction that adds a high energy phosphate group to ADP to form ATP
Calvin Cycle
Process by which a photosynthetic organism uses energy to synthesize simple sugars to CO2
Cellular Respiration
Process of producing ATP by breaking down carbon-based molecules when oxygen is present
Aerobic
Process that require oxygen to occur
Glycolysis
Anaerobic process in which glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate and two net ATP are produced
Anaerobic
Process that does not require oxygen to occur
Krebs Cycle
Process during cellular respiration that breaks down a carbon molecule to produce molecules that are used in electron transport chain
Fermentation
Anaerobic process by which ATP is produced by glycolysis
Lactic Acid
Product of fermentation in many types of cells, including human muscle cells
Alcoholic Fermentation
Used by many years and by some of plants, begins at the same point as lactid acid fermentation where glycolysis splits a molecule of glucose and produces two net ATP molecules, two pyruvate molecules, and tell NADH molecules
Autotroph
An organism that captures light energy to produce its own food or aka the "producer"
Heterotroph
An organism that obtains energy from the food it consumes or aka the "consumer"
Cellular Respiration
C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O
Glucose + Oxygen --> Carbon Dioxide + Water + 36 ATP
Photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H2O --> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Triphosphate
When the bonds are made energy is stored between the three phosphates of the molecule
Light Dependent Reaction
Absorbs light, energy is produced in NADPH and ATP, takes place in thylakoid
Photosystem II
Light is absorbed (electrons leave chlorophyll and go through an electron transport chain)
Water is split and the H and O is used in photosystem i, electrons are separated and go back to chlorophyll, oxygen is released
H electrons move through electron transport chain which is a series of proteins in thylakoid and mitochondria
Photosystem I
Light is absorbed (electrons again are excited and leave the chlorophyll molecule), NADPH is formed
Chemosynthesis
H+ flow along the gradient, ATP is formed by enzyme ATP Synthase
Light Independent Reactions
Aka Calvin Cycle, carbon dioxide enters the Calvin Cycle
Enzyme Rubisco
Converts ATP and NADPH into glucose by combining 3 carbon sugars into 6 carbon sugars (glucose), takes place in stroma
Step 1 Glycolysis
Anaerobic respiration, occurs in cytoplasm
Reaction: Glucose --> 2 ATPs + Pyruvate + NADH
Step 2 Krebs Cycle
Aerobic Respiration, occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria
Reaction: Pyruvate + 2 ATPs + 2 NADPH + O2 --> 2 ATPs +6CO2 + 8NADH + FADH2
Products: 2 ATPs + 6CO + 8 NADH + FADH2
Step 3 Electron Transport Chain
Aerobic respiration occurs in the cristae of the mitochondria
Reaction: FADH2 + NADH +O2 --> 32 ATPs