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Terms in this set (112)
What are kivas?
Underground rooms in Anasazi villages
Who developed pueblo houses?
Who lived in Pithouses?
What is the mixture of clay and straw used to make pithouses called?
What is a pueblo?
Houses with several stories and many rooms
Where were the Hohokam and the Anasazi located?
Southwest US and North Mexico
Which societies are known for being mound builders?
Hopewell and Mississippian
What was the purpose of the mounds?
They were burial sites
What mound building society developed an extensive trade route?
What society built some of the earliest cities in North American?
What was the Mississippian's largest city called?
Which society had exceptional math and engineering skills?
True of False: Evidence suggests that the Mississippian society was complex and had clear social classes.
How did engineers in the Mississippian society ensure proper drainage in the mounds they built?
They used different types of soil
Who ruled Cahokia and surrounding villages?
What determined the ways that people in early America got their food, made shelter, and organized their societies?
Where did the Inuits live?
Arctic regions of North America
Who built longhouses?
Which society lived in igloos?
What does maize mean?
What 5 nations made up the government called the Iroquois League?
Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, and Seneca.
Who was later added to the Iroquois League?
Who developed a form of sign language because all of their tribes didn't speak the same language?
What animal did the Plain Indians follow on horses for many necessities?
What all did Plain Indians use the buffalo for?
Clothes, tents, and tools.
What is Mesoamerica?
The region that includes Southern Mexico and Northern Central America
Where were the first farming settlements in the Americas located?
Where did the Olmecs live?
Lowlands along the Gulf Coast of Southern Mexico
Who built the first large towns in Mesoamerica?
What are the 7 countries located in Central America?
Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Panama, Costa Rica, Honduras, and Nicaragua.
What architecture was found at the first Olmec town?
A large pyramid, stone heads, and throne-like monuments
What do scholars think Olmec towns served as based on their architecture?
Ceremonial, political, and religious centers
What later Olmec town also had large stone heads, thrones, and a pyramid?
Who most likely lived in Olmec towns?
Rulers and their families
In the Olmec society, who controlled a long trading route stretching from central Mexico along the Pacific coast?
Olmec elite (high-ranking society members)
What items did Olmec export?
Rubber, pottery, fur, and cacao.
Who were the first is Mesoamerica to use writing?
What did the Olmecs spread that contained their writing?
Why did the Olmec society decline?
It's a mystery
Where did the Zapotecs live?
What was the name of the Zapotec's capital city located high above the Valley of Oaxaca?
True or False: Monte Alban was the first true city in Mesoamerica.
From evidence shown from carvings on pyramids, who possibly influenced the Zapotecs?
What was Monte Alban used for after the city declined?
High status burials
Where was Toltec's capital?
Which Mesoamerican civilization developed a strong military dominance over a large region that only lasted about three centuries?
What is the slash-and-burn agricultural technique that the Maya practiced?
Burning vegetation to clear land for farming
What did the Maya civilization trade for with other Mesoamerican civilizations?
Jade and cotton
What is the period where the Maya built most of their city called?
True or False: Maya cities functioned as city-states.
What Maya cities were some of the most spectacular in Mesoamerica?
Tikal and Copan
True or False: A Maya ruler eventually united all of the Maya city-states under one rule.
What two things linked Maya city-states together?
Trade and warfare
Who did the Maya think communicated with the gods?
True or False: The Maya were monotheistic.
False; they were polytheistic.
Why did the Maya perform rituals?
To keep the gods happy and to prevent disasters
Besides offering blood to the gods, what was another common religious ritual?
A ball game (loser's hearts were often sacrificed to the gods)
Who was apart of the Maya's upper class?
Kings, priests, and warriors
Who was apart of the Maya's middle class?
Merchants and skilled crafts people
Who was apart of the Maya's lower class?
Farmers and slaves (they supported the wealthier classes)
How many calendars did the Maya create?
Two (365 day farming one and a 260 day religious one)
How was the Maya's number system different from many at that time?
They used zero
What are glyphs?
Symbols (used by the Maya in their writing, represented object or sound)
What were the stone monuments that the Maya carved their writings into called?
The Maya kept records in bark-paper books called _____.
What caused the Maya decline?
Environmental damage, warfare, and abuse of power by kings
After the Maya civilization declined, where do we think they moved to for a while?
Chichen Itza in the Yucatan Peninsula
Where were the Aztecs first located?
Where did a war god supposedly tell the Aztecs that they should settle down and build their capital?
Where they saw an eagle perched on a cactus eating a snake
Where did the Aztecs migrate to?
South to the Valley of Mexico
Where did the Aztecs find the sign that the war god told them about?
What was the Aztecs capital called?
True or False: The Aztecs were farmers and fierce warriors.
What nearby city-states did the Aztecs form an alliance with to gain strength?
Texcoco and Tlacopan
True or False: The Aztecs required the conquered people of their empire to pay a tribute (tax).
What was the basis of the Aztec economy?
The tribute system
Who acted as spies for the Aztec rulers?
Merchants (traveling along trade routes)
What are the "floating gardens" that the Aztecs built to farm in Tenochtitlan called?
What was the Aztec's biggest trading market called?
How was Tenochtitlan connected to the Aztec trading center Tlateloco?
True or False: The Aztecs used a coin system.
False (sometimes used cacao beans or goose quills filled with gold for trade)
How was the king picked in Aztec society?
Elected by a group of nobels
True or False: The Aztecs were big believes in human sacrifice.
True or False: All Aztec boys and girls had to attend school until the age of 15.
Aztecs were known for their achievements in ___________.
Art and science
What are some examples of Aztec art?
Warrior costumes, jewelry, masks, and sculptures of gods.
What were passed orally from generation to generation in Aztec society?
Poems and riddles
True or False: The Aztecs created calendars very similar to the Maya calendars.
What brought an end to the Aztec empire?
Contact with Europeans
Where did the Chavin live in South America?
Highlands of Peru
What's another name for Middle America?
The Moche built canals taking streams of water from where to where?
Andes to their crops
What are the Moche best known for?
Metalwork with gold and silver and their pottery
What are the Nazca best known for?
Huge designs they made on the desert floor
What were the Nazca's designs on the desert floor for?
Location of water
Who brought the entire Andes region into one empire?
What was the Inca's capital?
What leader of the Inca used political alliances and military force to gain control of a huge territory?
Who had most of the power in Inca government?
True or False: The Incas made the leaders of conquered land move to their villages to keep an eye on them and prevent rebellions.
Who strictly ruled the economy in the Inca society?
What was the labor tax that common people had to pay called in the Inca society?
True or False: There were merchants in the Inca society.
False (government distributed goods)
What is a quipu?
System to keep track of goods in Inca empire (set of colored and knotted cords representing dates)
True of False: The Inca had a written language.
What was quipu also used to keep track of?
Tax records, livestock, and population (census)
In the Central Andes, what were groups of cooperative communities called? (Inca empire)
Ten ayllu had a _____ in the Inca empire.
True or False: The Inca empire had NO slaves.
Who was the most important god in the Inca religion?
Inti (the sun god)
What three catergories did the Incas separate cotton into?
Plain (common people), Finer (taxes and trade), and Special (royalty)
What marked the end of Inca civilization?
Spanish arrving in Peru
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