The principal positively charged ion to maintain the volume of fluid outside the cell
the principal positively charged ion inside the cells
body must maintain a blood level of this at the expense of the bones if not getting it from diet, involved in hypertension reduction, reduces colon cancer risk, best sources are dairy products
calcium and phosphorus
two minerals that are the major constituents of bone
increases risk of hypertension, temporarily increase body water, body must get rid of water to get rid of it
counteracts hypertension, can become depleted if you are sick and throwing up or have diarrhea or don't eat, can cause heart failure, good sources are fruits and vegetables
accompanies sodium and found in your stomach acid
needed to make thyroxine; if you don't get enough when you're pregnant, can cause creatinism, mental retardation in infant; too much causes toxic goiter
controls basal metabolic rate
which of the following provides most of the energy the muscles use in the early minutes of activity
enhances iron absorption
interferes with iron absorption
a deficiency of which mineral is a leading cause of mental retardation worldwide
which diet has been shown to increase an athlete's endurance
with deficiency, you lose your sense of taste;
which vitamin(s) is (are) present only in foods of animal origin
less glucose and more fat
a person who continues exercising moderately for longer that 20 minutes begins to use ____ _________ ___ _____ ___ for fuel
Bottled water must meet higher standards for purity and sanitation that U.S. tap water
A compound in food that can be converted into an active vitamin inside the body is known as a (an)
serves as an antioxidant vitamin
Aerobically trained muscles burn fat more readily than untrained muscles
which of the following B vitamins is especially important for women of childbearing age to prevent neural tube defects?
lost glycogen and water
what explains the great initial weight loss with a high-protein diet
Anyone who eats a meal high in salt can temporarily increase the body's water content
A deficiency of thiamin may result in which disease?
deficiency disease associated with niacin
deficiency disease associated with vitamin C
deficiency disease associated with vitamin D
night blindness and xeropthalmia are the result of a deficiency of which vitamin?
this mineral assists a group of enzymes that defend against oxidation
Calcium and Vitamin D
this mineral and vitamin combination is most important for bone health
the BMI standard is an excellent tool for evaluating obesity in athletes and the elderly
a non-essential nutrient
by definition, a vitamin is all of the following except
definition of a vitamin
an organic compound that is indespensable to body function and needed in minute amounts
the body's need for _______ far surpasses that for any other nutrient
the B vitamins act as part of ___________
research does not support the idea that athletes need supplements of vitamins to enhance their performance
true statements about basal metabolism
it supports the work that goes on all the time and it is directly controlled by the hormone thyroxine
all of the following are good food sources of vitamin C except ____
loss of lean body tissues
which of the following is a possible physical consequence of fasting?
tomato and meat, fish or poultry
which of the following would you consume with a food source of non-heme iron in order to facilitate iron absorption?
the nervous system cannot use fat directly as fuel; it can only use glucose
fat soluble vitamins
sweet potatoes, cantaloupe, and spinach
what are some foods rich in beta-carotene?
milk, cheese, and yogurt
the best way to obtain the calcium you need is to consume more ______, ______, ___ ______
water soluble vitamins
vitamins B and C; are easily absorbed and excreted
which mineral supplement is a leading cause of fatal accidental poisonings of U.S. children under 6 years old?
another vitamin only present in foods of animal origins
The theory that vitamin C prevents or cures colds is well supported by research
xeropthalmia results from advanced vitamin A deficiency and can lead to permanent blindness
a high blood level of homocysteine is associated with a deficiency of B vitamins and may increase the risk of heart disease
vitamin A supplements help treat acne
kidneys and brain
water balance is governed by the
fruits and vegetables are the best sources for zinc
in high doses zinc may reduce the HDL concentration in the blood
in high doses zinc may inhibit iron absorption from the digestive tract
zinc deficiencies in children retard growth
after about forty years of age, bones begins to lose density
the best way to control salt intake is it cut down on processed and fast foods
the most abundant mineral in the body is iron
the most abundant mineral in the body is calcium
dairy foods such as butter, cream, and cream cheese are good sources of calcium whereas vegetables such as broccoli are poor sources
low blood lipids
health risk not associated with excessive body fat
the more thyroxine produced, the higher the BMR
body density is determined by which technique
the obesity theory stating that the body chooses to be at a specific desired weight
the thermic affect of food plays a major role in energy expenditure
a diet too low in carbohydrate brings about responses that are similar to fasting
what stimulates synthesis of muscle cell protein
beer gets most of its calories from carbohydrates
weight training to improve muscle strength and endurance has no effect on maintaining bone mass
the average resting pulse for adults is around 70 bpm, but the rate is higher in active people
an athlete should drink extra fluids in the last few days of training before an event in order to ensure proper hydration
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