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The principal positively charged ion to maintain the volume of fluid outside the cell


the principal positively charged ion inside the cells


body must maintain a blood level of this at the expense of the bones if not getting it from diet, involved in hypertension reduction, reduces colon cancer risk, best sources are dairy products

calcium and phosphorus

two minerals that are the major constituents of bone


increases risk of hypertension, temporarily increase body water, body must get rid of water to get rid of it


counteracts hypertension, can become depleted if you are sick and throwing up or have diarrhea or don't eat, can cause heart failure, good sources are fruits and vegetables


accompanies sodium and found in your stomach acid


needed to make thyroxine; if you don't get enough when you're pregnant, can cause creatinism, mental retardation in infant; too much causes toxic goiter


controls basal metabolic rate


which of the following provides most of the energy the muscles use in the early minutes of activity

Vitamin C

enhances iron absorption


interferes with iron absorption


a deficiency of which mineral is a leading cause of mental retardation worldwide

high-carbohydrate diet

which diet has been shown to increase an athlete's endurance


with deficiency, you lose your sense of taste;

vitamin B12

which vitamin(s) is (are) present only in foods of animal origin

less glucose and more fat

a person who continues exercising moderately for longer that 20 minutes begins to use ____ _________ ___ _____ ___ for fuel


Bottled water must meet higher standards for purity and sanitation that U.S. tap water


A compound in food that can be converted into an active vitamin inside the body is known as a (an)

Vitamin E

serves as an antioxidant vitamin


Aerobically trained muscles burn fat more readily than untrained muscles


which of the following B vitamins is especially important for women of childbearing age to prevent neural tube defects?

lost glycogen and water

what explains the great initial weight loss with a high-protein diet


Anyone who eats a meal high in salt can temporarily increase the body's water content


A deficiency of thiamin may result in which disease?


deficiency disease associated with niacin


deficiency disease associated with vitamin C


deficiency disease associated with vitamin D

vitamin A

night blindness and xeropthalmia are the result of a deficiency of which vitamin?


this mineral assists a group of enzymes that defend against oxidation

Calcium and Vitamin D

this mineral and vitamin combination is most important for bone health


the BMI standard is an excellent tool for evaluating obesity in athletes and the elderly

a non-essential nutrient

by definition, a vitamin is all of the following except

definition of a vitamin

an organic compound that is indespensable to body function and needed in minute amounts


the body's need for _______ far surpasses that for any other nutrient


the B vitamins act as part of ___________


research does not support the idea that athletes need supplements of vitamins to enhance their performance

true statements about basal metabolism

it supports the work that goes on all the time and it is directly controlled by the hormone thyroxine


all of the following are good food sources of vitamin C except ____

loss of lean body tissues

which of the following is a possible physical consequence of fasting?

tomato and meat, fish or poultry

which of the following would you consume with a food source of non-heme iron in order to facilitate iron absorption?


the nervous system cannot use fat directly as fuel; it can only use glucose


fat soluble vitamins

sweet potatoes, cantaloupe, and spinach

what are some foods rich in beta-carotene?

milk, cheese, and yogurt

the best way to obtain the calcium you need is to consume more ______, ______, ___ ______

water soluble vitamins

vitamins B and C; are easily absorbed and excreted


which mineral supplement is a leading cause of fatal accidental poisonings of U.S. children under 6 years old?

vitamin A

another vitamin only present in foods of animal origins


The theory that vitamin C prevents or cures colds is well supported by research


xeropthalmia results from advanced vitamin A deficiency and can lead to permanent blindness


a high blood level of homocysteine is associated with a deficiency of B vitamins and may increase the risk of heart disease


vitamin A supplements help treat acne

kidneys and brain

water balance is governed by the


fruits and vegetables are the best sources for zinc


in high doses zinc may reduce the HDL concentration in the blood


in high doses zinc may inhibit iron absorption from the digestive tract


zinc deficiencies in children retard growth


after about forty years of age, bones begins to lose density


the best way to control salt intake is it cut down on processed and fast foods


the most abundant mineral in the body is iron


the most abundant mineral in the body is calcium


dairy foods such as butter, cream, and cream cheese are good sources of calcium whereas vegetables such as broccoli are poor sources

low blood lipids

health risk not associated with excessive body fat


the more thyroxine produced, the higher the BMR

underwater weighing

body density is determined by which technique

set-point theory

the obesity theory stating that the body chooses to be at a specific desired weight


the thermic affect of food plays a major role in energy expenditure


a diet too low in carbohydrate brings about responses that are similar to fasting

physical activity

what stimulates synthesis of muscle cell protein


beer gets most of its calories from carbohydrates


weight training to improve muscle strength and endurance has no effect on maintaining bone mass


the average resting pulse for adults is around 70 bpm, but the rate is higher in active people


an athlete should drink extra fluids in the last few days of training before an event in order to ensure proper hydration

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