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SOCI Exam #3
Terms in this set (75)
culture of poverty
argument that poor people adopt certain practices that differ from those of middle-class or mainstream society in order to adapt in survive
building on culture of poverty argument- poor not only differ from mainstream society in their inability to take advantage of what mainstream society has to offer but also are increasingly deviant and even dangerous to the rest of us
reward structure that lead to suboptimal outcomes by stimulating counterproductive behavior; welfare
Gautreaux assisted housing program
housing voucher plan to help 7100 families who previously lived in public housing to now move to more affluent chicago suburbs. Goal was to disperse these families neighborhoods that were more wealthy
Why wasnt the Gautreaux assisted housing program really an experiment?
Families self selected to be involved- no real control group
Moving to Opportunity
sample of families were randomly assigned to move to more affluent neighborhoods. the families in the treatment group reported feeling less stressed, happier, and healthier. However there was a minimal overall usage of the welfare system in families
the point at which a household's income falls below the necessary level to purchase food to physically sustain its members
a measurement of poverty based on a percentage of the median income in a given location
parenting stress hypothesis
a paradigm in which low income parents who experience stress due to social conditions in turn have deterimental parenting styles: beating children
War on poverty
term introduced by LBJ to help relieve poverty through government programs- job training, housing, education...
Main poverty questions
is poverty a cause of social ills, crime, poor education, or is it the result
results of policy that were not fully anticipated at the time at which the policy was implemented
What industrialized nation has the highest poverty rate?
Income based measurements are deceptive because they hind the effect of....
Outcomes that result from receiving welfare
1. sense of helplessness
2. hindrance to entering the labor market
negative income tax
Minimizing the amount of time welfare programs require of their recipients was one of the many
the exchange of time, money, and resources
they can't get to an office
A lot of people who are eligible for food stamps in the United States don't apply for them. Why?
Gated communities are examples of which factor that is mixing with wealth inequality to increase the gapbetween the rich and the poor?
"busted her digit"
cashed the welfare check
William Julius Wilson believed that the factors that led to the lack of inner-city job opportunities
1. gentrification- urban planning
Sammy, julio, fausto
Three Rivera Brothers
personal responsibility and work reconciliation plan
shifted more of the responsibility of running welfare programs onto individual states and mandated time limits for the number of months a person can receive aid
Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray's bell curve thesis.
survival of the fittest mentality when it came to poverty- those who were the smartest got the best jobs and thats ok. Genes over everything else impact a childs outcome
the process by which problems or issues not traditionally seen as medical come to be framed as such Ex) alcoholism- people formerly didnt see addiction as a medical problem
concepts describing social rights and obligations of a sick individual
Two rights of a sick person
1. not to perform normal social roles
2. not to be held accountable for his or her condition
Two obligations of a sick person
1. try to get well
2. seek competent help and comply with doctor's orders
illness in a general sense
tax on bad behavior ex) cigarette tax
changes in health care in US
-fee for service
-universal health care
-type of health care coverage plan
-doctor is payed per patient, not treatment
-doctors have incentive to under-treat
-public healthcare that covers people over 65 or those w/ disabilities
-public healthcare that covers poor people
a set of sacred beliefs so commonly accepted by most people that it becomes part of the national culture
a unified system of beliefs, traditions, and practices based on the conception of the sacred.
holy things meant for special use. elements beyond everyday life that inspire awe, respect, and even fear. Establish prescriptive and proscriptive norms (what to do and what not to do)
the things of everyday life. commonplace
the worship of a god or gods
the worship of one god. Christianity, Islam, and Judaism
the adherence to certain principles to lead a moral life
the belief that spirits are part of the natural world
large, organized religion not officially linked with the state or government. Share the same faith and are governed under one administrative umbrella
groups of people who gather together, especially for worship
a general movement away from religion toward a rational, scientific, orientation, a trend adopted by industrialized nations in the form of the separation of church and state.
Karl Marx on Religion
Religion is a means of social stratification. Religion drugs the masses into submission, keeping them quiet as they labor. Faith keeps downtrodden in their places
Max Weber on Religion
Protestant Ethic: followers of the protestant reformation emphasized disciplined work ethic, this-worldly concerns, and a rational orientation for life.
This is the spirit of capitalism. You have to work hard to become successful and reach salvation.
Durkheim on Religion
People conform to the rules of their religion and in effect yield to the moral authority of society. Religion is a collective act. Religion perpetuates social unity by strengthening the collective conscience.
the presence of numerous, distinct religious groups in one society.
Viewed as having a negative impact on religion overall because the plethora of choices weakens the credibility of any one church
A way for diverse religions to engage with one another to build a common sense of community
Entire set of religious norms, symbols, and beliefs that express the feeling that life is worth living and that reality is meaningful and not random chaos
Members of any denomination distinguished by four main beliefs
1. The bible is without error
2. Salvation comes only through belief in Jesus Christ
3. Personal Conversion only path to salvation
4. Others must be converted
followers of the bible that literally interpret its meaning.
feeling or perception of being in direct contact with ultimate reality or of being overcome with religious emotion
statements to which members of a particular religion adhere
practices required or expected of members of a faith
contemporary movement that encourages followers to look to religion for meaning, wisdom, and profound thought rather than for absolute truths about how the world works
typically, a conservative Protestant church that attracts at least 2,000 worshippers per week.
promises of future awards, such as salvation or eternity in heaven.
religious bodies that coexist in a relatively low state of tension with their social surroundings. They have mainstream beliefs and practices relative to those of the general population
relatively small groups that broke away from some other religious organizations to renew the original vision of the faith
Religious group that is an outgrowth of a sect, yet remains isolated from society
outside of the society's cultural traditions. Some practices are considered deviant or evil. Embrace different lifestyles
Religious organization that includes most/all members of a society; national religion.
Feminist Perspective on Religion
women perform fundamental roles in religious socialization but are subordinate in religious governing roles
church should be used in political efforts to eliminate poverty, discrimination, and other forms of injustice.
Function of Religion
Religious bonds transcend personal or divisive forces in society. Gives meaning to life. Binds people together in times of crisis. Helps integrate immigrants.
Can be dysfunctional
Belief in superiority of a religion
Religion gets tied to politics
A monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior. Bible is their sacred text
A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed which stresses belief in one god (Allah). Sacred text is the Koran. Followers are called Muslims. Obliged to defend their faith through Jihad.
5 Pillars of Islam
1. Allah is the one and true god and Muhammed is his prophet
2. Ritual Prayer in the direction of Mecca
3. Giving alms to the poor
4. Fasting through the month of Ramadan
5. A pilgrimage at least once to the holy city of Mecca. The Hajj.
A religion with a belief in one god. It originated with Abraham and the Hebrew people. There is a special relationship between god and the Jews...the y are the chosen people of god. Duty to obey the 10 commandments. The Torah is their sacred text.
Emphasis is on moral behavior in this life, not personal salvation.
strictly observe all the traditional beliefs and practices of Judaism
Most secular denomination of Judaism--to get greater acceptance by wider society
middle ground between orthodox and reform jews
people shop for the faith that best suits them. Caused by religious pluralism in America.
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