26 terms

Chapter 3 Sect 3-5 photosynthesis, respiration, cell division

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photosynthesis
process by which the cells of plants and some other organisms capture the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and sugars
autotroph
an organism that makes its own food
heterotroph
organisms that cannot make their own food and must feed on other organisms for energy and nutrients
Photosynthesis Stage 1 Capturing the suns energy
occurs mostly in the leaves
pigments, chlorophyll: the pigment in chloroplast captures the light energy and uses it to power stage 2
Photosynthesis Stage 2
Using Energy to make food (sugars) -H2O (via roots) and CO2 (via stomata) go to chloroplasts where chemical reactions result in glucose and oxygen production (which leaves via stomata)
Stomata
the small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move
how does water get into plants
it goes throgh the roots and is transported to the leaves for use in the choloroplasts to make food.
Photosynthesis equation
6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2 or
six molecules of Carbon Dioxide and 6 molecules of Water use the energy from sunlight to chemically react (arrow) 1 molecule of Sugar and six molecules of Oxygen
Respiration
The cellular process by which cells break down simple food molecules to release the energy they contain.
Breathing
brings oxygen into the lungs and expels carbon dioxide after respiration
Respiration Stage 1
in cytoplasm; glucose breaks down; no oxygen (O2); a little energy
Respiration Stage 2
in mitochondria; molecule breaks dowm smaller; needs O2; ALOT of energy
Fermentation
provides energy for cells without using oxygen but produces much less energy
Alcoholic fermentation
A process used by yeast cells and some bacteria to produce carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol (making bread and beer)
Lactic acid fermentation
the type of fermentation that creates lactic acid and gives muscle cells a weak and sore sensation
cell cycle
the process of cell growth and division that cells undergo-- interphase, mitosis, cytokenisis
Cell Cycle Stage 1 Interphase
cells grow to full size and makes new organelles and make and exact copy of nuclear DNA to prepare for division
Cell Cycle Stage 2 Mitosis
A four part stage when the cells nucleus divides into two nuclei.
Mitosis : 2a Prophase
Chromatin in the nucleus condenses to form chromosomes & the pairs of centrioles move to opposite sides of the nucleus.
Mitosis: 2b Metaphase
Chromosomes line up across the center of the cell, attaching to the fiber at its cetromere.
Mitosis: 2c Anaphase
The chromosomes split at their centromeres and chromatids separate. One is drawn by spindle fiber to one end of the cell. The other chromatid moves to the other end of the cell. The cell is stretched and pushed apart.
Mitosis: 2d Telophase
chromosomes stretch out and lose their rod like appearance, new nuclear envelope forms around each region of chromosomes
Cell Cycle Stage 3: Cytokinesis:
The final stage of the cell cycle, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the two new cells.
Structure of DNA molecule
Shaped like a twisted ladder or spiral staircase, The rails of the ladder are made up of a sugar molecule (Deoxyribose) alternating with a phosephae molecule. Each sugar is attached to one of four molecules called nitrogen bases
Nitrogen base pairs
Adenine(A)-Thymine(T) and Guanine (G)-Cytozine(C)
DNA Replication
2 sides of the DNA molecule separate and unwind like a zipper. Nitrogen bases of A, T, G, C floating in the nucleus pair up with one another A with T, G with C. Once they are all connected an exact copy of the original is formed.