The American Revolution- Chapter 7
Exam on Wednesday, November 30
Terms in this set (40)
The struggle of the former British colonies in America to gain their independence from Britain. Also called the War for Independence, or the American Revolution.
professional soldiers who fight for anyone who will pay for them (Example- George 3rd hired 30,000 called Hessians)
An overall plan (for example, for winning a war). Specific ways of carrying our a strategy are called tactics.
a nation that joins another nation in some common effort, such as winning a war (Example- France came into the war as an ally of the U.S and the French government sent things (weapons,etc.) to help them)
a formal agreement between nations
had good patriotism
received help from overseas
secretly aided by French
George Washington was a great leader
The Continental Army was always short of men because they would only serve for a short time, so they had less soldiers than the British.
Few Americans were trained for battle.
They had shortages of supplies.
They were so desperate for supplies that they printed paper money to pay for war but then the value of money dropped.
Greatly outnumbered the Continental Army (50,000 troops and 30,000 mercenaries)
recruited Hessians, Loyalists, African Americans, and Native Americans to fight
Long distance between Britain and America
Sending troops & supplies was timely and costly
Not great patriotism like Americans
Poor leadership, Lord George Germain (leader) didn't really know what he was doing
the American army
formed in 1775 by the Second Continental Congress
led by General George Washington
never had more than 20,000 troops
appointed by the Second Continental Congress as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in 1775
didn't ever give up after defeat
the legislative assembly composed of delegates from the rebel colonies who met during and after the American Revolution
they made the Declaration of Independence and Articles of Confederation
King of England during the war and passed the acts that were the causes of the Revolution
General William Howe
took command of British troops after the Battle of Bunker Hill
he captured New York and Philadelphia, resigned in 1778
marched to Philadelphia to lure Washington into another huge battle
wrote Common Sense
Washington read his book to his troops and it motivated his troops
not a very good commander for British
revised British strategy to divide rebels by taking control of Hudson River Valley
carried out Germain's plan
left Canada in June 1777 with about 8,000 British and Indian soldiers to meet with Howe
problems about his plan:
really complicated paths with tangled trees
traveled with a lot of heavy supplies
a turning point war
Not long after victory, the French become allies
Baron Friedrich von Steuben
volunteer from Prussia
in charge of training Continental Army
encouraged them with continual drills
Marquis de Lafayette
raised Continental Army's spirits
one of the richest men in France
bought the men warm clothing
Sir Henry Clinton
replaced Howe in 1778, and then decided to move his army back to NY, and order Cornwallis to return to Yorktown after a bad defeat. Washington trapped him and he surrendered
commander of the British forces in the American War of Independence
was defeated by American and French troops at Yorktown
South Carolina militia leader nicknamed the "Swamp Fox" for his hit-and-run attacks on the British
Strategy-"We fight, get beat, rise, and fight again."
The Revolutionary War began.
August 27, 1776
The American and British armies met in Brooklyn, NY for battle.
December 25, 1776
The C.A. crossed the Delaware Riv. in small boats.
General John Burgoyne left Canada with about 8,000 British soldiers and Indian warriors to meet up with General Howe, who was supposed to march his army north from NYC.
October 17, 1777
Burgoyne accepts defeat in the Battle of Saratoga.
June 28, 1778
The Battle of Monmouth
Cornwallis retreats to Virginia
October 6, 1781
The Trap at Yorktown was "sprung"
October 19, 1781
British surrender at Yorktown
The Treaty of Paris was signed
The Battle for New York City
British lost only 377 men, Americans lost 1,407
Thomas Mifflin (C.A.) retreats
Americans felt discouraged after losing so many times
Battle at Trenton
on December 25, 1776, Washington and his men surprised and captured a 868 hessians who were sleeping due to the events after their Xmas celebration
Battle at Yorktown
American and French troops form town long lines along the road to Yorktown
British troops surrendered
The War Ends
For Americans, it was a time for celebrating
6200 killed in combat
8500 were British prisoners
More died in Rev. War than in any conflict except the Civil War
The Treaty of Paris
a peace treaty at the end of the war that said that the British looked at America as a free country. It also said that the Americans had to pay back the loyalists for all the property they had broken
Challenge of Slavery/Independence
African Americans joined Patriot cause but were banned from Continental Army because Washington didn't want the army to become a haven for runaway slaves so then runaways became Loyalists then Washington changed his mind and 15% of soldiers in C.A. were African Americans