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Nonnutrient substances found in plant foods that show biological activity in the body are commonly known as
All of the following are results of making poor food choices except
when made over just a single day, they exert great harm to your health
A parent who offers a child a favorite snack as a reward for good behavior is displaying a food behavior known as:
Which of the following represents a food choice based on negative association?
an elderly gentleman who refuses a peanut butter and jelly sandwich because he deems it a child's food
A diet provides a total of 2200 kcalories of which 40% of the energy is from fat and 20% from protein. How many grams of carbohydrate are contained in the diet?
Among the following, which is the major weakness of a laboratory-based study?
The results cannot be applied to human beings
In nutrition research, observations of the quantities and types of foods eatne by groups of people and the health status of those groups are known as
A health magazine contacted you for your expert opinion on what measure best describes the amounts of nutrients that should be consumed by the population. Your reply should be:
The Recommended Dietary Allowances because they represent the average daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people.
The RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowances) for nutrients are generally
designed to meet the needs of almost all healthy people.
Which of the following is not a feature of the Adequate Intake (AI) and the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)?
The percentage of people covered is known for both values
Bob consumes about 2500 kcalories per day, whcih is apportioned as 150 g of fat, 140 g of carboohydrate, and 150 g of protein. What would be the appropriate revisions to help Bob adjust his nutrient intake so that it matches the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges?
70 g fat, 156 g protein, 313 g carbohydrate
The percentage of kcalorie intakes for protein, fat, and carbohydrate that are thought to reduce the risk of chronic diseases ar termed the:
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges
Which of the following is used to determine the presence of abnormal functions inside the body due to a nutrient deficiency?
Which of the following would most likely lead to primary nutrient deficiency?
inadequate nutrient intake
What entity coordinates nutrition-related activities of federal agencies?
the National Nutrition Monitoring program
Which of the following factors makes the greatest contribution to deaths in the United States?
Which of the following describes the legal limitations, if any, for a person who disseminates dietary advide to the public?
a license to practice as a nutritionist or dietitian is required by some states
Which of the following individuals is most likely to possess the least amount of nutrition training?
All of the following are minimum requirements for becoming a Registered Dietitian except
completing up to three-week clinical internship or the equivalent
A person viewing an exciting sports match of her favorite team and eating because of nervousness would be displaying a food choice behavior most likely based on
Which of the following statements defines the association between a risk factor and the development of a disease?
The more risk factors for a disease, the greater the chance of developing that disease
Who would be the most appropriate person to consult regarding nutrition information?
Terms that describe a food that provides health benefits beyond its nutrient contribution include all of the following except
How much energy is required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water one degree celsius?
Which of the following statements most accurately describes the composition of most foods?
contain mixtures of the three energy nutrients, although only one or two may predominate
Which of the following is a feature of the minerals as nutrients?
Some become dissolved in body fluids
Your friend Julie took a daily supplement of vitamin C and stated that she felt a lot better. Her experience is best described as a(n)
The smallest amount of a nutrient that is consumed over a prolonged period that maintains a specific function is called the nutrient
All of the following features are shared by the RDA and the AI except
neither is useful for evaluating nutrition programs for groups of people.
Which of the following is a purpose of both the Recommended Dietary Allowance and Adequate Intake?
Setting nutrient goals for individuals
The diet-planning principle that provides all the nutrients, fiber, and energy in amounts sufficient to maintain health is called
adequacy or moderation
Which of the following is not characteristic of the USDA Food Guide?
its nutrients of greatest concern include iron, chromium, and vitamin B-12
Which of the following foods could help meet the iron needs of vegetarians who consume dairy?
According to the principles of the USDA Food Guide, the foundation of a healthful diet should consist of:
Which of the following is a feature of U.S. laws governing information on food labels?
nutrition labeling is not required on foods produced by small businesses or products produced and sold in the same establishment
Information that must be lawfully provided on food labels includes all of the following except:
the amount recommended for ingestion each day
A food label ingredient list reads: wheat flour, vegetable shortening, sugar, salt, and cornstarch. What item would be found in the smallest amount in the food?
All of the following are features of serving size information on food labels except:
small bags of individually wrapped food items must contain only one serving
According to nutrition labeling laws, the amounts of what two vitamins MUST be listed on the package label?
vitamins A and C
On a food label, the "% Daily Value" table compares key nutrients per serving for a person consuming how many kcalories daily?
According to the FDA, which of the following diet-health messages on food labels represents a qualified health claim?
lipids and obesity
Which of the following are allowed in the diet of a lactovegetarian?
milk products and plant foods only
Which of the following is a feature of iron nutrition in vegetarians?
vegetarians absorb iron more efficiently
Of the daily recommended intake of fruit servings, what maximum percentage may be supplied by fruit juice?
The consumption of 2000 kcalories per day is sufficient to meet the energy needs of most
Approximately how many kcalories more per day are needed by an average college-age student who is active compared with her inactive counterpart?
Legumes are used as meat alternatives for all of the following reasons except
they can be graded as prime, choice, and select
The addition of calcium to some orange juice products by food manufacturers is most properly termed nutrient
Which of the following is a characteristic of food serving sizes?
serving sizes on food labels are nto always the same as those of the USDA Food Guide
Population groups such as sedentary older men, sedentary younger women, and active older women have a daily energy need (kcalories) of approximately
Food labels express the nutrient content in relation to a set of standard values known as the
Which of the following is descriptive of the FDA's "A" list?
a series of unqualified health claims on food labels
Which of the following is a feature of the FDA's regulations of food label health claims?
there are four grades of health claim quality: A, B, C, and D
All of the following are documented benefits for people following a vegetarian diet except
lower rates of anemia
Which of the following foods provides discretionary kcalories for the person on a weight reduction diet?
canned pears in syrup
Which of the following foods' kcalories would be considered as part of one's discretionary kcalorie allowance?
According to U.S. food labeling regulations, clear and convincing evidence has been found for all of the following claims regarding nutrition and disease except
sugar and diabetes
According to nutrition labeling laws, what two minerals MUST be listed on the package label as percent Daily Value?
calcium and iron
About how many more times sensitive is the sense of smell compared with the sense of taste?
What is one function of the pyloric sphincter?
prevents the contents of the intestines from backing up into the stomach
Which of the following is a description of chyme?
a semiliquid mass of partially digested food released by the stomach into the intestines
Important functions of hydrochloric acid in digestion/absorption include all of the following except:
it activates pancreatic lipase
Which of the following would NOT be acted upon by pancreatic juice secreted into the intestinal tract?
Which of the following is an important function of the intestinal villi crypts.
secretion of juices into the small intestine
Which of the following are found on the microvilli and function to break apart small nutrients into the final products of digestion?
To assist the process of digestion and absorption, it is usually best to:
combine different food types to enhance the absorption process
When alcohol and barbiturates are ingested, they are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and transported first to the:
The presence of fat in the intestines stimulates cells of the intestinal wall to release:
Which of the following substances functions to control the release of hydrochloric acid to prevent excessive acidity?
All of the following are important issues in the treatment or management of existing ulcers except:
gastric acid release should be suppressed
The food flavor enhancer monosodium glutamate is believed to promote a unique taste sensation known as:
Which of the following is associated with the presence of fat in the GI tract?
slowing of the process of digestion and absorption
In general, which of the following is associated with the fewest adverse effects from the treatment of constipation in adults?
ingestion of prunes
People who have frequent regular bouts of heartburn and indigestion have a medical condition known as:
What structure controls the passage of material from the small intestines to the large intestines?
Which of the following is a feature of peristalsis?
wavelike muscular contractions result from alternate tightening and relaxing of circular muscles and longitudinal muscles
Why is there little to no digestion of starch in the stomach?
salivary enzymes do not work in an acidic environment
After the pancreatic juices have mixed with chyme in the intestine, which of the following describes the pH of the resulting mixture?
Which of the following is a significant property of dietary fiber?
promotes water retention of stools
Which of the following is an important function of the intestinal villi crypts.
secretion of juices into the small intestine
Immediately after absorption, what circulatory system carries the fat soluble vitamins and large fats?
What is the primary role of the normal, thriving intestinal bacterial population?
helps prevent infectious bacteria from attacking the system
Which of the following statements is not characteristic of fibers?
an example of a nonpolysaccharide fiber is hemicellulose
Which of the following is a characteristic of dietary fiber?
classified according to solubility in water
With few exceptions, all of the following characteristics are shared by water-soluble and water-insoluble fibers except:
neither has an appreciable effect on glucose absorption
Characteristics of dietary phytic acid include all of the following EXCEPT:
it is classified as a fiber
What is the chief reason that many people with lactose intolerance can consume foods containing some lactose without suffering any symptoms.
a change occurs in GI bacteria
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