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Nutrition

Nutrition Final
STUDY
PLAY
What is the chief reason people choose the foods they eat?
taste
Nonnutrient substances found in plant foods that show biological activity in the body are commonly known as
phytochemicals
All of the following are results of making poor food choices except
when made over just a single day, they exert great harm to your health
A parent who offers a child a favorite snack as a reward for good behavior is displaying a food behavior known as:
positive association
Which of the following represents a food choice based on negative association?
an elderly gentleman who refuses a peanut butter and jelly sandwich because he deems it a child's food
Which of the following is not one of the six classes of nutrients?
Fiber
Food energy is commonly expressed in kcalories and in
kilojoules
All of the following are classified as macronutrients except
calcium
Approximately how many nutrients are considererd indispensable in the diet?
40
A diet provides a total of 2200 kcalories of which 40% of the energy is from fat and 20% from protein. How many grams of carbohydrate are contained in the diet?
220
How many minerals are known to be required in the diet of human beings?
16
Among the following, which is the major weakness of a laboratory-based study?
The results cannot be applied to human beings
Overeating and gaining body weight is an example of a:
positive correlation
What is the benefit of using a large sample size in an experiment?
chance variation is ruled out
In nutrition research, observations of the quantities and types of foods eatne by groups of people and the health status of those groups are known as
epidemiological studies
A health magazine contacted you for your expert opinion on what measure best describes the amounts of nutrients that should be consumed by the population. Your reply should be:
The Recommended Dietary Allowances because they represent the average daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people.
Recommended Dietary Allowances may be used to
assess dietary nutrient adequacy for individuals.
The RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowances) for nutrients are generally
designed to meet the needs of almost all healthy people.
Which of the following is not a feature of the Adequate Intake (AI) and the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)?
The percentage of people covered is known for both values
Bob consumes about 2500 kcalories per day, whcih is apportioned as 150 g of fat, 140 g of carboohydrate, and 150 g of protein. What would be the appropriate revisions to help Bob adjust his nutrient intake so that it matches the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges?
70 g fat, 156 g protein, 313 g carbohydrate
The percentage of kcalorie intakes for protein, fat, and carbohydrate that are thought to reduce the risk of chronic diseases ar termed the:
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges
What is the AMDR for fat?
20-35%
Which of the following is an anthropometric measure?
body weight
Which of the following is used to determine the presence of abnormal functions inside the body due to a nutrient deficiency?
laboratory tests
Which of the following would most likely lead to primary nutrient deficiency?
inadequate nutrient intake
Which of the following is an overt symptom of iron deficiency?
headaches
What entity coordinates nutrition-related activities of federal agencies?
the National Nutrition Monitoring program
Factors known to be related to a disease but not proven to be causal are called
risk factors
Of the ten leading causes of illness and death, how many are associated directly with nutrition?
4
Which of the following factors makes the greatest contribution to deaths in the United States?
tobacco
Which of the following describes the legal limitations, if any, for a person who disseminates dietary advide to the public?
a license to practice as a nutritionist or dietitian is required by some states
Which of the following individuals is most likely to possess the least amount of nutrition training?
Certified Nutritionist
All of the following are minimum requirements for becoming a Registered Dietitian except
completing up to three-week clinical internship or the equivalent
A person viewing an exciting sports match of her favorite team and eating because of nervousness would be displaying a food choice behavior most likely based on
emotional comfort
A subclinical nutrient deficiency is defined as one that
is in the early stages.
Which of the following statements defines the association between a risk factor and the development of a disease?
The more risk factors for a disease, the greater the chance of developing that disease
Who would be the most appropriate person to consult regarding nutrition information?
Registered dietitian
Terms that describe a food that provides health benefits beyond its nutrient contribution include all of the following except
phytonutritional food
The complete lining of a person's digestive tract is renewed approximately every
3-5 days.
Which of the following is classified as a micronutrient?
iron
Which of the following is an organic nutrient?
Fat
Which of the following cannot add fat to the body?
inorganic nutrients
How much energy is required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water one degree celsius?
1 kilocalorie
Gram for gram, which of the following provides the most energy?
fats
International units of energy are expressed in
kilojoules
Which of the following statements most accurately describes the composition of most foods?
contain mixtures of the three energy nutrients, although only one or two may predominate
Which of the following is a feature of the minerals as nutrients?
Some become dissolved in body fluids
Which of the following is not a characteristic of the vitamins?
Inorganic
How many vitamins are known to be required in the diet of human beings?
13
Your friend Julie took a daily supplement of vitamin C and stated that she felt a lot better. Her experience is best described as a(n)
anecdote
What is the benefit of using placebos in an experiment?
All subjects receive a treatment
In the scientific method, a tentative solution to a problem is called the
hypothesis
A clinical trial must involve
human beings as subjects
The smallest amount of a nutrient that is consumed over a prolonged period that maintains a specific function is called the nutrient
requirement
Recommended Dietary Allowances are based on the
Estimated Average Requirement.
All of the following features are shared by the RDA and the AI except
neither is useful for evaluating nutrition programs for groups of people.
Which of the following is a purpose of both the Recommended Dietary Allowance and Adequate Intake?
Setting nutrient goals for individuals
What is the AMDR for carbohydrate?
45-65%
What is the AMDR for protein?
10-35%
The motive for a person who alters his diet due to religious convictions is most likely his:
values
The Dietary Reference Intakes may be used to
plan and evaluate diets for healthy people.
An essential nutrient is one that cannot be
made in sufficient quantities by the body
The diet-planning principle that provides all the nutrients, fiber, and energy in amounts sufficient to maintain health is called
adequacy or moderation
Which of the following is the most calcium-dense food?
Nonfat milk
Nutrient dense refers to foods that:
provide more nutrients relative to kcalories
Which of the following is an expression of the nutrient density of a food?
0.01 mg iron per kcal
Which of the following is not characteristic of the USDA Food Guide?
its nutrients of greatest concern include iron, chromium, and vitamin B-12
Which of the following is an alternative choice for meats in the USDA Food Guide?
nuts
Which of the following foods could help meet the iron needs of vegetarians who consume dairy?
legumes
According to the principles of the USDA Food Guide, the foundation of a healthful diet should consist of:
grains
Food exchange systems were originally developed for people with:
diabetes
What nutrient makes up most of the endosperm section of grains such as wheat and rice?
starch
The part of the grain that remains after being subjected to refining is the:
endosperm
Which of the following breads has the highest fiber content?
whole-grain
What mineral is added in the enrichment process of refined flours?
iron
The most highly fortified foods on the market are:
breakfast cereals
Which of the following is a feature of U.S. laws governing information on food labels?
nutrition labeling is not required on foods produced by small businesses or products produced and sold in the same establishment
Information that must be lawfully provided on food labels includes all of the following except:
the amount recommended for ingestion each day
A food label ingredient list reads: wheat flour, vegetable shortening, sugar, salt, and cornstarch. What item would be found in the smallest amount in the food?
cornstarch
By law, a serving size on beverage food labels is:
8 fluid ounces
All of the following are features of serving size information on food labels except:
small bags of individually wrapped food items must contain only one serving
According to nutrition labeling laws, the amounts of what two vitamins MUST be listed on the package label?
vitamins A and C
On a food label, the "% Daily Value" table compares key nutrients per serving for a person consuming how many kcalories daily?
2000
According to the FDA, which of the following diet-health messages on food labels represents a qualified health claim?
lipids and obesity
Which of the following ingredients found on a food label is a source of protein?
tofu
Which of the following are allowed in the diet of a lactovegetarian?
milk products and plant foods only
In vegetarians, the RDA is higher for
iron
Which of the following is a feature of iron nutrition in vegetarians?
vegetarians absorb iron more efficiently
Textured vegetable protein is usually made of:
soy protein
In which of the following food groups are legumes found?
meats
Of the daily recommended intake of fruit servings, what maximum percentage may be supplied by fruit juice?
50
The consumption of 2000 kcalories per day is sufficient to meet the energy needs of most
sedentary women
All of the following are examples of legumes except
potatoes
Approximately how many kcalories more per day are needed by an average college-age student who is active compared with her inactive counterpart?
400-500
General features of legumes include all of the following except:
they are high in fat
Legumes are used as meat alternatives for all of the following reasons except
they can be graded as prime, choice, and select
In food exchange lists, to what group are olives assigned?
fat
The addition of calcium to some orange juice products by food manufacturers is most properly termed nutrient
fortification
Which of the following is an enrichment nutrient for grains?
folate
The "More Matters" food campaign promotes increased consumption of
fruits and vegetables
Textured vegetable protein is usually made from
soybeans
A meat described as "prime cut" means that it
is higher in fat than other cuts of meat
Which of the following is a characteristic of food serving sizes?
serving sizes on food labels are nto always the same as those of the USDA Food Guide
Approximately how many grams are in an ounce?
30
Population groups such as sedentary older men, sedentary younger women, and active older women have a daily energy need (kcalories) of approximately
2000
Food labels express the nutrient content in relation to a set of standard values known as the
Daily Values
Which of the following foods qualifies as a "good source" of calcium?
yogurt with 150 mg of calcium
Which of the following is descriptive of the FDA's "A" list?
a series of unqualified health claims on food labels
Which of the following is a feature of the FDA's regulations of food label health claims?
there are four grades of health claim quality: A, B, C, and D
All of the following are documented benefits for people following a vegetarian diet except
lower rates of anemia
Which of the following foods provides discretionary kcalories for the person on a weight reduction diet?
canned pears in syrup
Which of the following foods' kcalories would be considered as part of one's discretionary kcalorie allowance?
jam
Cooking an 8-ounce raw steak will reduce the weight (ounces) to approximately
6
According to U.S. food labeling regulations, clear and convincing evidence has been found for all of the following claims regarding nutrition and disease except
sugar and diabetes
According to nutrition labeling laws, what two minerals MUST be listed on the package label as percent Daily Value?
calcium and iron
About how many more times sensitive is the sense of smell compared with the sense of taste?
1000s (thousands)
Which of the following is NOT a sphincter muscle?
duodenum
What structure functions to prevent entrance of food into the trachea?
epiglottis
What is a bolus?
portion of food swallowed at one time
What is one function of the pyloric sphincter?
prevents the contents of the intestines from backing up into the stomach
What structure separates the colon from the small intestine?
ileocecal valve
Which of the following is a description of chyme?
a semiliquid mass of partially digested food released by the stomach into the intestines
Among the GI tract organs, which has the strongest muscles?
stomach
What is reflux?
backward flow of cyme
What is the function of mucus in the stomach?
protects stomach cells from gastric juices
Important functions of hydrochloric acid in digestion/absorption include all of the following except:
it activates pancreatic lipase
Which part of the GI tract contains highly acidic digestive juices?
stomach
Which of the following would NOT be acted upon by pancreatic juice secreted into the intestinal tract?
fiber
An example of an important function of the colon would be its absorption of:
salts
What is the function of bile?
emulsifies fats
Which of the following is an important function of the intestinal villi crypts.
secretion of juices into the small intestine
What is the name of the projections on the inner surface of the small intestine?
villi
Which of the following are found on the microvilli and function to break apart small nutrients into the final products of digestion?
enzymes
To assist the process of digestion and absorption, it is usually best to:
combine different food types to enhance the absorption process
What is the first vessel to receive absorbed water-soluble vitamins?
hepatic portal vein
When alcohol and barbiturates are ingested, they are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and transported first to the:
liver
Which of the following conducts lymph into the vascular system?
subclavian vein
What is the first major organ to receive nutrients that are absorbed into the lymph?
heart
The presence of fat in the intestines stimulates cells of the intestinal wall to release:
cholecystokinin
What substance controls the release of bile into small intestines?
cholecystokinin
What is the normal pH of the stomach juice?
1.5 - 1.7
Which of the following substances functions to control the release of hydrochloric acid to prevent excessive acidity?
gastrin
The intestinal flora are comprised primarily of
bacteria
Which of the following results from reverse peristalsis?
vomiting
A person with chronic diarrhea is at risk for which of the following?
dehydration
Therapy for constipation would include all of the following except:
decreasing fiber intake
Which of the following is a common cause of constipation?
lack of physical activity
Antacids were originally developed to treat
active ulcer in the stomach
All of the following are important issues in the treatment or management of existing ulcers except:
gastric acid release should be suppressed
Which of the following is least likely to aggravate an existing ulcer?
raw carrots
The food flavor enhancer monosodium glutamate is believed to promote a unique taste sensation known as:
umami
Which of the following is associated with the presence of fat in the GI tract?
slowing of the process of digestion and absorption
In general, which of the following is associated with the fewest adverse effects from the treatment of constipation in adults?
ingestion of prunes
People who have frequent regular bouts of heartburn and indigestion have a medical condition known as:
gastroesophageal reflux
Which of the following is a characteristic of the appendix?
it stores lymph cells
All of the following are chief causes of ulcers except:
excessive caffeine consumption
The most common cause for the development of ulcers is:
infection from H. pylori
What structure controls the passage of material from the small intestines to the large intestines?
ileocecal valve
What is the primary function of the rectum?
stores waste materials prior to evacuation
Which of the following is a feature of peristalsis?
wavelike muscular contractions result from alternate tightening and relaxing of circular muscles and longitudinal muscles
What is a function of hydrochloric acid in the stomach?
creates an optimum acidity
Why is there little to no digestion of starch in the stomach?
salivary enzymes do not work in an acidic environment
What substance protects the stomach lining from damage due to digestive juices?
mucus
After the pancreatic juices have mixed with chyme in the intestine, which of the following describes the pH of the resulting mixture?
approximately neutral
Which of the following is NOT a component of pancreatic juice?
bile
What is one function of the gallbladder?
stores bile
Which of the following classes of nutrients requires the least amount of digestion?
vitamins
Which of the following is a significant property of dietary fiber?
promotes water retention of stools
Which of the following is an important function of the intestinal villi crypts.
secretion of juices into the small intestine
Which of the following is a function of the intestinal microvilli?
transport of nutrient molecules
Immediately after absorption, what circulatory system carries the fat soluble vitamins and large fats?
lymphatic
What is the primary role of the normal, thriving intestinal bacterial population?
helps prevent infectious bacteria from attacking the system
Which of the following regulates the pH of the stomach?
gastrin
Which of the following stimulates the pancreas to release bicarbonate-rich juice?
secretin
Which of the following is not a simple carbohydrate?
starches
Which of the following is known as blood sugar or dextrose?
glucose
Typical dietary sources of carbohydrate include all of the following EXCEPT:
glycogen
Which of the following is not a characteristic of glucose?
sweeter tasting than sucrose
What is the composition of sucrose?
one glucose and one fructose unit
Which of the following sugars is NOT found in plants?
lactose
Which of the following is NOT a rich source of dietary starch?
fruits
Which of the following is a feature of the pectins?
they are used to thicken jelly
Which of the following statements is not characteristic of fibers?
an example of a nonpolysaccharide fiber is hemicellulose
Which of the following is a characteristic of dietary fiber?
classified according to solubility in water
With few exceptions, all of the following characteristics are shared by water-soluble and water-insoluble fibers except:
neither has an appreciable effect on glucose absorption
Characteristics of dietary phytic acid include all of the following EXCEPT:
it is classified as a fiber
What is the name of the short chains of glucose units that result from starch breakdown?
dextrins
What is the primary organ that converts fructose to glucose following absorption?
liver
What percentage of the world's ADULT population shows good tolerance to lactose ingestion?
30
What is the chief reason that many people with lactose intolerance can consume foods containing some lactose without suffering any symptoms.
a change occurs in GI bacteria
Which of the following is a feature of lactose?
it is used as filler in one out of five prescription drugs