music, poetry, light, sports, lyre, golden arrows, sun
the hunt, silver arrows, silver deer, moon; Diana
wine, revelry, satyr; Bacchus
earth; marries Uranus
sky; marries Gaea; Lord of the Universe
First round of Uranus and Gaea's kids
Titans; 6 boys, 6 girls; the pretty, wonderful children; Cronus was the youngest
Second round of Uranus and Gaea's kids
Cyclopes; 3 of them named Lightning, Thunder, and Thunder-Bolt; one-eyed blacksmiths; ugly; Uranus threw them into Tartarus
Third round of Uranus and Gaea's kids
Hecatonchires; 3 of them; 50 heads and 100 arms; ugly; Uranus threw them into Tartarus
Gaea's plan to overthrow Uranus
fashioned a sickle and told the Titans to take it and set their brothers free; only Cronus dared to take it; Uranus fled and Cronus became Lord of the Universe
sea; Gaea's second husband
golden age of the universe
Why was Gaea upset with Cronus?
he didn't set his monstrous brothers free
Gaea's plan to get rid of Cronus
she knew Cronus's son would overthrow him; when Rhea gave birth to her sixth child, Rhea hid him and gave Cronus a rock wrapped in clothes to swallow instead
Zeus growing up
Rhea and Gaea hid Zeus in Crete; he was nursed by nymphs and a goat, Amaltheia; from his horns flowed ambrosia and nectar
goddess of prudence; gave Zeus advice on how to free his siblings; later she turns into a fly while pregnant and Zeus swallows her
How were Cronus's children regurgitated?
Metis tricked Cronus into eating an herb that made him vomit up his children
Cronus and Rhea's children
Hades, Poseidon, Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Zeus
Why were the Titans angry with Zeus and his siblings?
they were Zeus's aunts and uncles and thought they should be next in line to take over
Which Titans sided with Zeus?
Prometheus (had the gift of forethought and sided with the winner; Epametheus (gift of afterthought)
What did the Cyclopes and the Hecatonchires do for Zeus's side?
the Cyclopes made weapons and the Hecatonchires threw rocks at the Titans
What did Zeus and his siblings do with the Titans when they won?
Titans were locked up in Tartarus except for Atlas; he had to hold the sky on his shoulders
Why was Gaea upset with Zeus and what did she do?
the Titans were locked in Tartarus; she sends monsters to kill Zeus; he defeats them
Who is the Greek hero?
Who is the Roman hero?
Who are Aeneas' parents?
Venus and Anchises
Which war did Aeneas fight in?
the Trojan War
Who is the father of Paris?
When did the Trojan War begin?
when helen ran away with paris
Who is Helen?
Queen of Sparta and wife of Menelaus; most beautiful woman in the world; runs off with Paris
Where does Paris bring Helen?
back to Troy
Who does Menelaus seek help from?
his brother, Agamemnon
What does Agamemnon do?
arranges a HUGE army and Sieges Troy
Who are the Greek heroes from the army?
Odysseus and Achilles
Who are the Trojan heroes from the army?
Hector and Aeneas
How long did the stalemate in the Trojan War last?
How were the Greeks finally able to take over Troy?
Odyseus created a deception.
What actions did Odysseus carry out for his deception?
1. the Greeks constructed a huge wooden horse that was sent into the Trojan city; it contained Greek soldiers; 2. at night when the horse was within the city, they climbed out from the belly of the horse and attacked/burned down the city
What did the gods tell Aeneas?
to flee the city and found a new one of his his because the Trojans were going to lose
Who did Aeneas bring with him?
his wife (Creusa), dad (Anchises), and son (Ascanius) and 20 shiploads of companions
What happened to Creusa?
she was lost during the flight
What present day country does Aeneas finally settle in?
What does Aeneas name his land?
What was Aeneas's new land named after?
his second wife, Lavinia
What was the name of the Italians and the exiled Trojans that now inhabited Lavinium?
What is the name of the epic poem that tells of Aeneas' travel? Who was it written by?
The Aeneid by Vergil
What did Ascanius do after Aeneas died?
he left Lavinium and established a new city
What was the name of the city that Ascanius founded?
Who was Ascanius' son?
Who was a king of Alba Longa?
Who overthrew Numitor and sent his to prison?
Amulius, his brother
What did Amulius do to ensure that he did not have any successors.
he killed his nephews and then appointed his niece, Rhea, as a priestess
What was the point of Rhea being a priestess?
So that she would remain without relations with men and not have any kids.
Who vists Rhea?
What happens 9 months later after Mars' visit?
out pops Romulus and Remus
What does Amulius do with the babies?
sends them down the Tiber River
Who finds the babies?
Who finds the babies the second time?
What does Faustulus do?
When Romulus and Remus find out who they are, what do they do?
they put their grandfather back on the throne
What happens when Rom and Rem want to have their own city?
they talk to the gods and the gods give them omens
What was Remus' omen?
6 vultures on Aventine Hill
What was Romulus' omen?
he saw 12 vultures second
When Romulus came out victor, how did Remus react?
he was jealous and was teasing Romulus
How did Romulus react to Remus?
he killed him and made it known to all to inform them that anyone who crossed the Roman walls would end up dead just like Remus
What day was Rome founded on?
April 21, 753 BC
amulet hung around a child's neck on the ninth day after their birth; supposed to protect the child from evil
festival where a boy became a man; boy would stop wearing the toga praetexta and wear the toga virilis; he would dedicate his bulla and the first scrapings of his beard to the household gods Lares and Penates
When would a girl stop wearing her bulla?
when she got married
What did regular Roman men wear?
knee-length tunica, toga pura/toga virilis
What did Roman government officials wear?
tunica w/ purple stripes; toga praetexta
worn by men running for offices; a toga pura covered in chalk so that it sparkled in the sun
What did Roman women wear?
tunica, stola, palla, jewelry
What did Roman girls wear?
tunica, toga praetexta, bulla
What did Roman boys wear?
tunica w/ narrow purple stripes, toga praetexta, bulla
all wore soleae (shoes) or sandalia (sandals)
Where did slave auctions take place?
What did white chalk on the feet of a slave indicate?
the slave was new and had never been a slave
Things slaves could not do
vote, wear citizens' clothing, use the legal system, marry legally, own property
What happened to runaway slaves?
they could be branded
festival where the masters and the slaves would switch places for a day
How to become a slave
POW, verna (born into slavery), captured by pirates and sold, punishment for crime (abandoning army, heavy debt)
led by Sparticus; 6,000 slaves held off the Roman army for two years before the Romans won; every slave in the uprising was crucified
shop at the front of the house; people would sell things themselves or rent the space out to merchants
dining room; 3 couches; could seat 9
most important room in the house; where the Romans recieved guests
floor in the atrium; collected water to use for drinking water
opening in the ceiling of the atrium that let in light
study/office; served as a dividing point between the two halves of the house
shrine; small altar in the atrium where citizens could worship privately; had statues of favorite gods and things to remember deceased relatives
kitchen; outdoors in case of fire and because of smells
colonnade surrounding the garden (like a courtyard)
romans ate there in summer when it was either too hot or too nice to eat inside
sine-without; in- in/on; dē- down from/ about; sub- under; pro- for; ā/ab- away from, by; cum- with; ē/ex- out of