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16 terms

Opportunistic Pneumonias

Dr. Butler - November 25, 2011 Semester 3, Mini 3
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Where do Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria usually grow?
soil
How would you diagnose Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria?
sputum culture or BAL or bronchoscopic brushing
What pulmanary sx in Mycobacterium avium complex can you see on x-ray or CT scan?
pulmonary nodules and bronchiectasis
What microbe is a gram (+) anaerobic bacilli, non-spore forming with a branching morphology?
actinomycosis
What people are more likely to get an actinomyces infection?
Persons with poor oral hygiene
Persons who aspirate (alcoholics, seizure patients)
What opportunistic pneumonia can be seen with oral infections such as "lumpy jaw," gingivitis?
actinomycosis
What opportunistic pneumonia tends to form "sulfur granules", which are yellow granules in pus?
actinomycosis and nocardia
What microbe is a gram (+) aerobic bacilli, non-spore forming with a branching morphology, partially acid-fast?
nocardia
Why is Nocardia often missed in the lab?
slow growth and overgrowth by other bacteria
What is an important site of entry for nocardia?
skin
What are the leading causes of ventilator-associated pneumonia?
P. aeruginosa
Acinetobacter baumannii
Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and other Gram(-)
S. aureus
What is the 2nd most common cause of ventilator acquired pneumonia?
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Why is Pseudomonas aeruginosa good at using ventilators to produce infection?
Colonizes endotracheal tube and forms biofilm
Positive pressure ventilator blows bacteria into alveoli
What bacteria secretes a mucoid extracellular polysaccharide called alginate, especially in the lungs of CF pts?
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Why do ventilators assist a lung infection?
inactivates mucociliary elevator
positive pressure moves bacteria further into lung
What is the leading cause of death in nosocomial infection in USA?
Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia