chpater 13 history test
Terms in this set (151)
leader of the united states
president harry truman/ FDR
leader of the soviet union
prime minister joseph stalin
area of power in the US
united states and western block of europe
area of power in the soviet union
USSR and eastern block of europe
govt type of the US
govt type of the soviet union
economy type of US
capitalism (market economy)
economy type of Soviet union
communism (command economy)
The UN is an _____ intended to protect the members agaisnt aggression-the league of nations was dissolved
The UN was establish in ___ and based in ___
1945 new york city
a phrase winston churchill used to represent the political division of europe
the policy directed at blocking soviet influence and preventing the expansion of communism
the policy directed at blocking soviet influence and preventing the expansion of communism (containment)
the truman doctrine
secretary of state george marshall's plan to give any european nation that was devastated by WW2 aide
the marshall plan
originally, the plan was resisted by congress, but it was later supported after ____
the communists invaded yugoslavia
a state of diplomatic hostility that developed between the two superpowers after WW2: the USA and USSR
the cold war
beginning in 1949, both powers began to use ____ in their dealing with each other
spies, propaganda, diplomacy and secret operations
north atlantic treaty organization
a defensive military alliance made up of ten western nations that was established in 1949
each nation pledged to meet any attack on a NATO nation___
with armed resistance
established as a soviet and communist response to NATO
an alliance system created by the soviet union to reflect their policy and to defend agaisnt the NATO
willingness to go to the brink or edge of war
dwight d eisenhower's secretary of state, john foster dulles, threatened that the US would "____ by means and at places of our own choosing" if the soviet union or its supporters attacked US interests
truman stressed the duty of the US to combat ___ worldwide.
at the present moment in world history nearly every nation must choose between alternative ____.
ways of life
one way of life is based upon the ___, and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from political oppression.
will of the majority
the second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. it relies upon ____, a controlled press and radio, fixed elections and the suppression of personal freedoms.
terror and oppression
i believe that it must be the policy of the US to support free peoples who are ____ by armed minorities or by outside pressures
resisting attempted subjugation
the ___ of the world look to us for support in maintaining their freedoms.
if we falter in our leadership, we may endanger ____ and we shall surely endanger the welfare of our own nation
the peace of the world
in june of 1950, the ___ suddenly turned hot
two natins developed a communist industrial ___ and a rural, non-communist south korea
south korea asked the US to intervene. when the matter came to a vote at the UN Security Council the soviets ____ in the vote.
boycotted or refused to take part in
the invasion of south korea brought about a UN "___" agaisnt the aggressors (north korea)
the attack fractured the north korean war machine and about half of the north korean's ___.
the fight between north korea and south korea had grown into a war between ___ and the ___.
china and the US
general douglas macarthur called for a nuclear attack against chinese cities but president ___ disagreed
truman stated "we are trying to ___world war, not start one"
in north korea the communist dictator, ___ establsihed collective farms, developed heavy industry and built up the country's military power.
kim II sung
kim II sung died in 1994 and his son __ ascended power.
Kim Jong II
communist north korea developed ____
after the korean war, ___ korea prospered, thanks to massive aid from the US and other countries
in 1987, south korea adopted a ____ and established free elections
_____ keep the 2 korea's apart, despite periodic discussion of reuniting the country.
US and its allies
soviet union and its allies
developing nations (often newly independent and not yet aligned with either superpower)
(developed nation) a country that has advancements in technology and large industries (an organized manufacturing system) ex. US, japan, france, GB, canada, australia
newly industrialized nation
(newly developed nation) a country that has recently developed technology and has established a manufacturing system trying to porvide a more comfortable way of life for its citizens ex. mexico, south korea, argentina
(third world country) a country that is not very advanced; that is in progress of developing technologies; that is typically dependent on industrialized nations for assistance; disease, starvation and political turmoil are common ex. ethiopia and somalia
nations of the world interact and must rely on or depend on one another both economically and politically
talks have failed and the military forces representing each nation go to battle
talks are on-going and there is a chance of a peaceful outcome, however military forces are being mobilized and war battle plans are prepared
the term used to describe the relationship between the US and the Soviet union from 1945 to 1980. neither side ever factually fought the other, but instead they engaged in a "battle of wills" over ideologies and beliefs
the ___ of 1956 did not involve the world's two major powers- the united states and russia- but was a very important event in the cold war
world's most important transportation system
the canal was jointly owned by ____ and very little of the huge profits made by the canal ever went to support the egyptian economy
britain and france
two reasons why the __ refused to support Great britain, france and israel
first, the americans were ____ about what britain and france had planned
kept in the dark
second, the US realized that world sympathy was with egypt on this issue and that both britain and france would be viewed as ____
the communist leader who had a strong hold in northwestern china; he mobilized peasants for guerilla war agaisnt the japanese in the northeast
the nationalist leader who dominated southwestern china
(part of mao zedong's "great leap forward" plan) large collective farms on which a great number of people would work and live together
militia units formed by young chinese people in 1966 in response to mao zedong's call for a social and cultural revolution
led by the red guards to establish a society of peasants and workers in which all were equal
the new hero of the people was the peasant who ____
worked with his hands
the life of the ____ and artistic activity- was considered useless and dangerous
to help stamp out the threat, the red guards shut down ___
colleges and schools
civil war seemed possible, so in 1976, mao zedong admitted the ____ had to stop; with mao's approval the chinese army dissolved the red guards
chinese communist leader
chinese nationalist leader
chinese communist area ruled
chinese nationalist area ruled
chinese communist foreign support
chinese nationalist foreign support
a nation whose economy is primarily agricultural
the policy of preventing the expansion of a hostile power
lying when one has sworn an oath to tell the truth
to express a formal dissaproval of an action (by the senate)
the idealogical and often confrontational conflict between the US and soviet union between 1946 and 1990
a systematic attempt to overthrow a govt. by using persons working secretly from within
not openly shown or engaged in
political and military barrier that isolated soviet-controlled countries of eastern europe after world war 2
how some americans reacted to the threat of nuclear war
the nuclear fallout describes the american response after the soviets launched sputnik in october 1957. some americans built a fallout shelter or keep the evacuation map in their ready to go get out of homes way.
US troops fought the longest war in which country? during which years were the troops in this country?
in 1950, US forces intervene in ___
when does the korean war end?
in 1973 ____ is signed with vietnam; US forces are removed from vietnam
in 1962 the US and soviet union are involved in ___
the cuban missile crisis
when did the US troops arrive in vietnam?
how many years after the end of ww1 did US forces first become involved in conflict?
why did soviet union want to keep germany weak?
because germany had invaded them twice in 30 yrs
what was lenin's theory about capitalism?
lenin believed that as capitalist economies mature, as capital accumulates and as profit rates fall.
what did president roosevelt and his advisers believe was the best way to create prosperity?
he believed his new deal would create prosperity, but in fact it created poverty. private ownership of property (captialism)
how did the leaders agree to divide germany?
4 occupational zones US, Great britain and france became west germany
what were other demands by stalin concerning germany?
that germany surrender to him and pay heavy war reparations
what was truman's suggestion to stalin at the potsdam conference?
the soviets take reparations from their zones and everyone else would let their industry grow
what was stalin's response to truman?
why was stalin displeased with truman's proposal?
he was competitive against truman and wanted nuclear war with japan for complete surrender
what was a satellite nation and which nations were so considered?
communist countries of eastern europe- poland, romania, bulgaria, hungary and czhechoslovakia
located near berlin; where truman and stalin met to work out a deal on germany
eastern european countries that had to reamin communist and friendly to the soviet union
a soviet resort where roosevelt, churchill and stalin met to plan the postwar world
an era of confrontation and competition between the US and the soviet union that lasted from about 1946 to 1990
one of the major causes of the cold war were arguments between the US and the soviet union over reparations and ?
economic policy in germany
roosevelt, churchill and stalin agreed to divide germany into four zones controlled by the US, great britain, the soviet union and ?
the presence of the soviet army in eastern europe ensured that pro-soviet communist govt.s would be established eventually in poland, romania, bulgaria, hungary and ?
what was containment?
the long telegram gave rise to the policy of keeping communism within its present territory through the use of diplomatic, economic and military actions
what were the immediate and long-term effects of the truman doctrine?
to stabilize the greek govt. and ease soviet demands in turkey. it pledged the US to fight communism worldwide.
how did the marshall plan help europe?
pumped billions of dollars worth of supplies, machinery, and food into western europe
how was the federal republic of germany formed?
US officials concluded that the soviets were deliberately trying to undermine germanys economy. in response, US and GB and france announced that they were emerging into zones.
what was the berlin aircraft?
when cargo planes supplied berliners with food, medicine and coal
when was NATO created and what was it?
by april 1949, an agreement had been reached to create the north atlantic treaty organization- a mutual defense alliance
why, once it lost china as its chief ally in asia, did the US adopt policies to encourage the rapid recovery of japan's industrial economy?
US encouraged japan to grow to create a new ally that could be helpful against north korea
to what was president truman committed in korea?
fought for a limited war and containment
keeping communism within its present territory through the use of diplomatic, economic ad military actions
the soviet zone of germany
gave european nations american aid to rebuild their economies
to prevent a communist revolution in asia, the US sent $2 billion in aid beginning in he mid-1940s to ?
chiang kai-shek's force
where did truman order US naval and air power into action because he thought the communist invasion of that country was a test of the containment policy?
the US, GB, and france merged their zones to form west germany and allowed the germans to have thier own ?
after the korean war began, the US embarked on a major ?
as cold war tensions rose, americans worked to combat ____ at home
the effort to secretly weaken a society and overthrow its govt.
in 1946, american ___ working for a project code-named "venona" cracked the soviet spy code of the time
the ___ intensified as senator joseph mccarthy presided over a senate committee charged with exposing communists in govt.
mccarthy distributed a booklet called ____ which accused democratic party leaders of corruption and of protecting communists
the party of betrayal
in 1954 the senate passed a vote of __ agaisnt mccarthy
fear of ____ and of communism dominated american popular culture during the early cold war years
already upset by the first soviet____ in 1949, americans were shocked when the USSR tested the much more powerful hydrogen bomb test in 1953.
according to experts, for every person killed outright by a nuclear blast, four more would die later from ___ -the radiation left over from a blast
blackening reputations with vague and unfounded charges
lying under oath
what did president truman establish in early 1947 to screen all federal employees?
loyalty review program
formal face-to-face meeting of leaders from different countries to discuss important issues
policy of threatening to use nuclear weapons if a communist state tried to seize territory by force
countries with primarily agricultural economies
a relationship that developed between the military establishment and the defense industry
the first artificial satellite to orbit earth
what did congress create to coordinate research in rocket and space technology?
national aeronautics and space administration
to prevent communist revolutions in other countries, eisenhower decided to use covert, or hidden, operations conducted by the ?
central intelligence agency
what island, which eisenhower saw as part of the "anti-communist barrier" did the chinese threaten to seize in 1954?
who emerged as the leader of the soviet union 3 yrs after stalin died?
division of ___ after ww2 made the middle east a ___ of competing nationalist movements
what groups were in conflict over a palestanian homeland?
jews and arabs
when did the jews first claim the land?
claim to land goes back 3,000 yrs when jewish kings ruled from jerusalem
what are 3 modern events that cause problems in the land known as palestine?
the persecution of jews in europe, the rising value of oil in the middle east and global politics that have influenced decisions
people who favored a jewish national homeland in palestine
who wrote the balfour declaration and what did it state?
arthur james balfour stating palestine would be a home for the jewish people