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Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin intended to

show the cruelty of slavery

Uncle Toms Cabin may be described as a

Powerful political force

As a result of reading Uncle Tom's Cabin many northerners swore that

they would have nothing to d with the enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law

When the people of Britain and France read Uncle Tom's Cabin their government's

realized that intervention in the Civil War on behalf of the South would not be popular

Hinton R. Helper's book The Impending Crisis of the South argued that

those who suffered most from slave labor were non-slaveholding southern whites.

In 1855, pro-slavery southerners

regarded Kansas as slave territory.

In "Bleeding Kansas" in the mid-1850s, the Lecompton Constitution was identified with the

pro-slavery element, and the New England Immigrant Aid Society was associated with the antislavery free-soilers.

In 1856, the breaking point over slavery in Kansas came with

an attack on Lawrence by a gang of proslavery raiders.

President James Buchanan's decision on Kansas's Lecompton Constitution

hopelessly divided the Democratic Party.

The Lecompton Constitution proposed that the state of Kansas have

black bondage regardless of whether the document was approved or not.

Kansas Territory's Lecompton Constitution was supported by

President James Buchanan and pro-slavery settlers in Kansas.

The situation in Kansas in the mid-1850s indicated the

impracticality of popular sovereignty in the territories.

The clash between Preston S. Brooks and Charles Sumner revealed the

fact that passions over slavery were becoming dangerously inflamed in both North and South.

James Buchanan won the Democratic nomination for the presidency in 1856 because

he was not associated with the Kansas-Nebraska Act

The central plank of the Know-Nothing party in the 1856 election was


Nativists in the 1850s were known for their

anti-Catholic and antiforeign attitudes.

The Republicans lost the 1856 election in part because of

southern threats that a Republican victory would be a declaration of war

As late as 1856, many northerners were still willing to vote Democratic instead of Republican because

many did not want to lose their profitable business connections with the South.

In ruling on the Dred Scott case, the United States Supreme Court expected to

lay to rest the issue of slavery in the territories.

In the Dred Scott case, the Supreme Court ruled that

Dred Scott was not a citizen of the United States; Dred Scott could not legally sue in a federal court; the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional; and Congress had no power to ban slavery from a territory.

The decision rendered in the Dred Scott case was applauded by

pro-slavery southerners

For a majority of northerners, the most outrageous part of the Supreme Court's ruling in the Dred Scott case was

that Congress had never had the power to prohibit slavery in any territory.

As a result of the panic of 1857

the South believed that "cotton was king."

The panic of 1857 resulted in

clamor for a higher tariff.

The panic of 1857 hit hardest among

grain growers of the Northwest.

The political career of Abraham Lincoln could best be described as

slow to get off the ground.

As a result of the Lincoln-Douglas debates

Douglas defeated Lincoln for the Senate.

Stephen A. Douglas argued in his Freeport Doctrine during the Lincoln-Douglas debates that action by

territorial legislatures could keep slavery out of the territories.

In his raid on Harpers Ferry, John Brown intended to

foment a slave rebellion.

After John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry, the South concluded

that the North was dominated by "Brown-loving" Republicans.

Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 Republican Party presidential nomination in part because

he had made fewer enemies than front-runner William Seward.

Before his nomination in 1860, Abraham Lincoln

had been a state legislator in Illinois, a United States congressman from Illinois, and a failed candidate for the United States Senate.

The 1860 Republican Party platform favored

protective tariffs, construction of a transcontinental railroad, free homesteads, and non-extension of slavery.

The presidential candidate of the new Constitutional Union party of 1860 was

John Bell

In the election of 1860 Abraham Lincoln

Won a majority in the electoral college and won less than the majority of the popular vote

When Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 presidential election

people in South Carolina rejoiced because it gave them an excuse to secede.

The government of the Confederate States of America was

first organized in Montgomery, Alabama.

"Lame-duck" President James Buchanan believed that

the Constitution did not authorize him to force southern states to stay in the Union.

President James Buchanan declined to use force to keep the South in the Union for all of the following reasons:

he was surrounded by pro-southern advisers; a slim chance of reconciliation remained; northern public opinion would not support it; and the army was needed to control Indians in the West.

The proposed Crittenden Compromise, if adopted, would have prohibited

slavery north of 36 degrees 30'; guaranteed federal protection of slavery in territories south of 36 degrees 30'; and permitted the expansion of slavery into new territories south of 36 degrees 30'.

Abraham Lincoln opposed the Crittenden Compromise because

he Compromise could allow slavery to expand into Latin America.

Secessionists supported leaving the Union because

they were tired of abolitionist attacks; they believed that the North would not oppose their departure; the political balance seemed to be tipping against them; and they were dismayed by the success of the Republican Party.

The immense debt owed to northern creditors by the South was

repudiated by the South

European powers favored a civil war in the United States because

war would weaken the United States' power in the Western Hemisphere.

President Lincoln's decision on what to do about the situation at Fort Sumter in the first weeks of his administration can best be characterized as


Confederate batteries fired on Fort Sumter when it was

learned that Lincoln had ordered supplies sent to the fort

Many Northerners were willing to allow Southern states to leave the Union until

The South attacked Fort Sumter

States that joined the Confederacy after the firing on Fort Sumter included

Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas

In order to persuade the Border States to remain in the Union

President Lincoln declared martial law where needed

The Border States offered all of the following advantages

a large population; a good supply of horses and mules; valuable manufacturing capacity; and large navigable rivers.

Lincoln's declaration that the North sought to preserve the Union with or without slavery revealed the influence of

the Border States on his policies

Border slave states that remained loyal to the Union included

Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland, and Delaware.

During the Civil War, most of the Five Civilized Tribes in the Indian Territory of presentday Oklahoma supported the


In return for support from the Plains Indians during the Civil War, the Union

waged war on them and herded them onto reservations.

To achieve its independence, the Confederacy had to

fight the invading Union army to a draw.

As the Civil War began, the South seemed to have

the advantage of more talented military leaders.

The greatest weakness of the South during the Civil War was

its economy.

The North's greatest strength in the Civil War was

its economy.

Northern advantages at the outset of the Civil War included

control of the seas; and more banks, factories, railroads, and people

Much of the hunger experienced by Confederate soldiers in the Civil War was due to

the South's rickety transportation system.

Northern soldiers eventually became known for their

discipline and determination.

To find effective high-level commanders, the Union used

trial and error.

A supposed asset for the South at the beginning of the Civil War that never materialized to its real advantage was intervention from Britain and France.

intervention from Britain and France.

One reason that the British did not try to break the Union blockade of the South during the Civil War was that

they feared losing Northern grain shipments.

The South believed that the British would come to its aid because

Britain was dependent on Southern cotton.

King Cotton failed the South as a tool of wartime diplomacy because

Britain held surpluses of cotton when the war began; textile workers in Britain favored the North; the North sent captured cotton to Britain; and Britain developed alternative supplies of cotton in Egypt and India.

During the Civil War, Britain and the United States were nearly provoked into war by

the Trent affair, involving the removal of Southern diplomats from a British ship.

During the Civil War, diplomacy for the Union and the Confederacy was

critical for both.

Confederate commerce-raiders such as the Alabama proved effective against

Union shipping.

Confederate commerce-raiders dealt a

devastating blow to the Union's merchant marine and were almost all built in Britain.

The Confederacy's most effective commerce-raider was the


Napoleon III's attempt to install Maximilian on the Mexican throne was

a clear violation of the Monroe Doctrine.

France abandoned its attempt to control Mexico because

the United States threatened to send soldiers to force France to leave.

During the Civil War, relations between the Union and Canada

were at times very poor.

The Southern cause was weakened by the

concept of states' rights that the Confederacy professed.

As leader of the Confederacy,

Jefferson Davis defied rather than led public opinion.

The problems that Abraham Lincoln experienced as president were

less prostrating than those experienced by Jefferson Davis partly because the North had a long-established and fully recognized government.

President Lincoln's loose interpretation of civil liberties during the Civil War resulted in

the suspension of the privilege of habeas corpus; led to the arrest of several critical newspaper editors; and was defended by him as necessary to save the Union.

As president of the Confederacy,

Jefferson Davis did not exercise the arbitrary power wielded by Abraham Lincoln because of the South's emphasis on states' rights.

To fill the army's demand for troops,

the North relied mainly on volunteers.

Like the North during the Civil War, the South

exempted the wealthy from military service; experienced a high rate of desertion; relied mainly on volunteer enlistments; and drafted men into military service.

The Union's establishment of the National Banking System was

the first significant step toward a unified banking network since 1836.

During the Civil War, the Union

launched a new national banking system.

As a result of the Civil War, the Northern economy

emerged more prosperous than ever before.

To help pay for the Civil War, both the North and the South

raised taxes, printed paper currency, and sold bonds.

The only major Northern industry that suffered economic reversal during the Civil War

was foreign shipping.

During the Civil War, women in the North had

new opportunities opened to them in industry.

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