As a result of reading Uncle Tom's Cabin many northerners swore that
they would have nothing to d with the enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law
When the people of Britain and France read Uncle Tom's Cabin their government's
realized that intervention in the Civil War on behalf of the South would not be popular
Hinton R. Helper's book The Impending Crisis of the South argued that
those who suffered most from slave labor were non-slaveholding southern whites.
In "Bleeding Kansas" in the mid-1850s, the Lecompton Constitution was identified with the
pro-slavery element, and the New England Immigrant Aid Society was associated with the antislavery free-soilers.
In 1856, the breaking point over slavery in Kansas came with
an attack on Lawrence by a gang of proslavery raiders.
President James Buchanan's decision on Kansas's Lecompton Constitution
hopelessly divided the Democratic Party.
The Lecompton Constitution proposed that the state of Kansas have
black bondage regardless of whether the document was approved or not.
Kansas Territory's Lecompton Constitution was supported by
President James Buchanan and pro-slavery settlers in Kansas.
The situation in Kansas in the mid-1850s indicated the
impracticality of popular sovereignty in the territories.
The clash between Preston S. Brooks and Charles Sumner revealed the
fact that passions over slavery were becoming dangerously inflamed in both North and South.
James Buchanan won the Democratic nomination for the presidency in 1856 because
he was not associated with the Kansas-Nebraska Act
The Republicans lost the 1856 election in part because of
southern threats that a Republican victory would be a declaration of war
As late as 1856, many northerners were still willing to vote Democratic instead of Republican because
many did not want to lose their profitable business connections with the South.
In ruling on the Dred Scott case, the United States Supreme Court expected to
lay to rest the issue of slavery in the territories.
In the Dred Scott case, the Supreme Court ruled that
Dred Scott was not a citizen of the United States; Dred Scott could not legally sue in a federal court; the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional; and Congress had no power to ban slavery from a territory.
For a majority of northerners, the most outrageous part of the Supreme Court's ruling in the Dred Scott case was
that Congress had never had the power to prohibit slavery in any territory.
Stephen A. Douglas argued in his Freeport Doctrine during the Lincoln-Douglas debates that action by
territorial legislatures could keep slavery out of the territories.
After John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry, the South concluded
that the North was dominated by "Brown-loving" Republicans.
Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 Republican Party presidential nomination in part because
he had made fewer enemies than front-runner William Seward.
Before his nomination in 1860, Abraham Lincoln
had been a state legislator in Illinois, a United States congressman from Illinois, and a failed candidate for the United States Senate.
The 1860 Republican Party platform favored
protective tariffs, construction of a transcontinental railroad, free homesteads, and non-extension of slavery.
In the election of 1860 Abraham Lincoln
Won a majority in the electoral college and won less than the majority of the popular vote
When Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 presidential election
people in South Carolina rejoiced because it gave them an excuse to secede.
"Lame-duck" President James Buchanan believed that
the Constitution did not authorize him to force southern states to stay in the Union.
President James Buchanan declined to use force to keep the South in the Union for all of the following reasons:
he was surrounded by pro-southern advisers; a slim chance of reconciliation remained; northern public opinion would not support it; and the army was needed to control Indians in the West.
The proposed Crittenden Compromise, if adopted, would have prohibited
slavery north of 36 degrees 30'; guaranteed federal protection of slavery in territories south of 36 degrees 30'; and permitted the expansion of slavery into new territories south of 36 degrees 30'.
Abraham Lincoln opposed the Crittenden Compromise because
he Compromise could allow slavery to expand into Latin America.
Secessionists supported leaving the Union because
they were tired of abolitionist attacks; they believed that the North would not oppose their departure; the political balance seemed to be tipping against them; and they were dismayed by the success of the Republican Party.
European powers favored a civil war in the United States because
war would weaken the United States' power in the Western Hemisphere.
President Lincoln's decision on what to do about the situation at Fort Sumter in the first weeks of his administration can best be characterized as
Confederate batteries fired on Fort Sumter when it was
learned that Lincoln had ordered supplies sent to the fort
Many Northerners were willing to allow Southern states to leave the Union until
The South attacked Fort Sumter
States that joined the Confederacy after the firing on Fort Sumter included
Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas
In order to persuade the Border States to remain in the Union
President Lincoln declared martial law where needed
The Border States offered all of the following advantages
a large population; a good supply of horses and mules; valuable manufacturing capacity; and large navigable rivers.
Lincoln's declaration that the North sought to preserve the Union with or without slavery revealed the influence of
the Border States on his policies
Border slave states that remained loyal to the Union included
Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland, and Delaware.
During the Civil War, most of the Five Civilized Tribes in the Indian Territory of presentday Oklahoma supported the
In return for support from the Plains Indians during the Civil War, the Union
waged war on them and herded them onto reservations.
Northern advantages at the outset of the Civil War included
control of the seas; and more banks, factories, railroads, and people
Much of the hunger experienced by Confederate soldiers in the Civil War was due to
the South's rickety transportation system.
A supposed asset for the South at the beginning of the Civil War that never materialized to its real advantage was intervention from Britain and France.
intervention from Britain and France.
One reason that the British did not try to break the Union blockade of the South during the Civil War was that
they feared losing Northern grain shipments.
The South believed that the British would come to its aid because
Britain was dependent on Southern cotton.
King Cotton failed the South as a tool of wartime diplomacy because
Britain held surpluses of cotton when the war began; textile workers in Britain favored the North; the North sent captured cotton to Britain; and Britain developed alternative supplies of cotton in Egypt and India.
During the Civil War, Britain and the United States were nearly provoked into war by
the Trent affair, involving the removal of Southern diplomats from a British ship.
Confederate commerce-raiders dealt a
devastating blow to the Union's merchant marine and were almost all built in Britain.
Napoleon III's attempt to install Maximilian on the Mexican throne was
a clear violation of the Monroe Doctrine.
France abandoned its attempt to control Mexico because
the United States threatened to send soldiers to force France to leave.
The problems that Abraham Lincoln experienced as president were
less prostrating than those experienced by Jefferson Davis partly because the North had a long-established and fully recognized government.
President Lincoln's loose interpretation of civil liberties during the Civil War resulted in
the suspension of the privilege of habeas corpus; led to the arrest of several critical newspaper editors; and was defended by him as necessary to save the Union.
As president of the Confederacy,
Jefferson Davis did not exercise the arbitrary power wielded by Abraham Lincoln because of the South's emphasis on states' rights.
Like the North during the Civil War, the South
exempted the wealthy from military service; experienced a high rate of desertion; relied mainly on volunteer enlistments; and drafted men into military service.
The Union's establishment of the National Banking System was
the first significant step toward a unified banking network since 1836.
To help pay for the Civil War, both the North and the South
raised taxes, printed paper currency, and sold bonds.
The only major Northern industry that suffered economic reversal during the Civil War
was foreign shipping.