Geo 109 Final Exam
Geo 109 UKY
Terms in this set (79)
GIS (Geographic Informative System)
-a collection of technologies for gathering, processing, analyzing, and mapping geographic data
- information systems which enable analysis and represents spatial phenomena
GIS & Society
GIS and Society represents the past (old school), while critical GIS represents the future
meaning of critical GIS
-represents GIS as an object, set of instructions, and practices that have disciplinary and social effects
- Includes Marxist, feminist and post structural approaches
-not quantified data..
-in recent years qualitative GIS have been greatly favored by the coming together of critical human geography and the social sciences in the study of socio-spatial phenomena
Not defined in the book
Probably the shift in importance from social GIS (quantitative data, old school) to critical GIS (qualitative, modern) as technology drastically changed in the 1990s
refers to geographic knowledge created by the public
considered "assertive" geospatial data
while the provider of the data may be confident in its accuracy, this does not necessarily guarantee the data meets the information standards of the organization
divide between those who have ready access to computers and the Internet, and those who do not.
Based mainly on economic status and geographical location
volunteered geographic information (VGI)
-harnessing of tools to create, assemble, and spread geographic data provided voluntarily by individuals
-Some examples of this phenomenon are WikiMapia, OpenStreetMap, and Google Map Maker
-controversial because we don't know how much of the data is actually volunteered
-sub category of user generated data
- person to remember: Andrew Turner
- use of geographical techniques and tools for personal and community activities or by a non-expert group of users
-allows everyone to be involved
- Ex: MapTime
- merging of the Web with geospatial information, permitting for searches by physical location.
- Issues: loss of privacy, censorship, dumbing down of maps
-part of user-generated content that has a geotag*
code inserted into information in order to note its appropriate geographic location
process of thinking about the implication of the consequences of mapping
make formal maps alternatives to those used by the government (negotiate historical and cultural notions)
-map "against dominant power structures, to further seemingly progressive goals"
- keeps one consistent phenomena
- mapping one thing
- ex: map of trees that have fallen during a tornado with every tree marked with a "T"
information is gathered and expressed in a summary form, for purposes such as statistical analysis.
Example- census tract data
- bounded or exact type of map
- ex: atm's on campus or census tract data; blue shirts in classroom
gradual, smooth increase or decrease
ex: temp of classroom as you move towards the back row (continuously increases)
numerical data (census tract)
Deals with descriptions.
Data can be observed but not measured.
Colors, textures, smells, tastes, appearance, beauty, etc.
the aggregation of web maps and user-generated content, from a group of individuals
Example- OpenStreetMap, Google map maker
- turning/giving over data over in a game.
- if you make it a game, people won't notice they're handing over their locations
- Example: four square
Not all info on Wikipedia is correct, but there is a self-corrective process preformed by people viewing the content
can edit and correct if its wrong
all-encompassing term for any collection of data sets so large and complex that it becomes difficult to process them using traditional data processing applications
example: use of iCloud
Wikipedia definition, sorry..
intelligence about the human activity on earth derived from the exploitation and analysis of imagery and geospatial information that describes, assesses, and visually depicts physical features and geographically referenced activities on the Earth. GEOINT consists of imagery, imagery intelligence (IMINT) and geospatial information.
- Facebook check-ins. Similar to gamification
Brings to light other people's worlds
Produces a shared understanding of our world
Can reconfigure culture
-Person to remember: Guy Debord
- mapping individual perceptions
-approach to geography that emphasizes playfulness and "drifting" around urban environments.
Consideration of the accuracy of attributes also helps to define the quality of the data. This quality component concerns the identification of the reliability, or level of purity (homogeneity), in a data set.
is the expected deviance in the geographic location of an object from its true ground position
describes World Wide Web sites that use technology beyond the static pages of earlier Web sites. The term was coined in 1999 by Darcy DiNucci
- a combination between consumers and producers.
- when products produce themselves
-"if you're not paying for a Service on the Internet, you are a product"
maps mash up..
"consumers become mapmaker producers"
new way to map, less conventional..
"the systematic collection and analysis of data; development of technology; testing of natural phenomena; and the spread of these activities by ammature researchers
large number of people working as one together in a powerful manner (opinion, no conformity, local knowledge, collective final decision)
- a performance artist
- "core sample" works in the medium of GPS (art pieces moving around the Earth)
- a radical cartographer.
- attributed for "an atlas of radical cartography". It exposes knowledge about the world that isn't mainstream.
- responsible for psychogeography.
- member of a group called situationist
- produced an audible map (mapped the sounds of her breath as she ran the Escape routes from Boston)
API (application programming interfaces)
- extract data from their apps
- ex: foursquare, twitter, etc.
- free and open source software
- ex: QGIS
- often multiple files saved as one
keyhole markup language
- Google Earth
- handles more dynamic spatial data
- different format for geographic data on the Internet
LBS(Locational based services)
- a basic infrastructure within mobile devices to report your location back to carriers/operators
-kind of augmented reality (a live direct or indirect view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented (or supplemented) by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data.)
Born in 2009
- piece of technology that allows a user to volunteer their spatial location via mobile device
is a new application for mobile phones that enables Facebook users to alert their friends to their current location.
an example of a collaborative mapping endeavor.
- built upon a community of mappers
- Created of ESRI
- a profit organization
- free & open software
CAN RUN NATIVELY ON MAC OS & LINUX & WINDOWS
a desktop and mobile web mapping service application and technology provided by Google, offering satellite imagery, street maps, and Street View perspectives,
- Emerged around 2005
- desktop only
-virtual globe, map and geographical information program
-provides quick and easy access to current and historical census data and demographic information. The easy-to-use web interface lets users create maps and reports to illustrate, analyze, and understand demography and social change
provides data for the lowest level of geography, to largest geographic entities, from zip code areas, to Census tracts.
website and mobile app used to track athletic activity via GPS.
Users access Twitter through the website interface, SMS, or mobile device app.[
an anonymous social media app.
uses location (LBS)
- type of LBS that modifies the "check in"
- check in service is a volunteered information by you. built into Facebook
- uses gamification using badges
allowing individual tiles to load in the background of web browser (2005)
touch and drag map
- servers; browsers;
Software as a Service (SaaS) cloud computing platform that provides GIS and web mapping tools for display in a web browser.
- type of web development platform of mapmaking
- desktop app that allows you to build maps
- not browser based
- Kind of Psychogeographer
- creates maps to push limits
- "squirrel Map"
-formalistic description of categories
question of being
-what a map is doing, what it can do
How has social media influenced cartography?
a. Social media allows for sharing of social data used in map making
What is geospatial intelligence?
c. Use of geographic technology to collect and analyze spatial information that serves national security
Web 2.0 marks a change in the Internet where
b. Website content is largely produced by users
As one aspect of Critical GIS reflexivity refers to
b. Process of thinking of implications of mapping projects
What is critical GIS?
a. Recognizing GIS as an object of study, not just a tool with which to make maps
Why did Denis Wood declare cartography "dead" in 2003?
b. The rise of Esri's ArcGIS
L.B.S. stands for
Locative Barometric satellites
What is not a social implication of the growth of LBS?
a. Individual privacy is threatened
Which of the following is a crowd-sourced mapping platform?
a. Open-Street Map
Arno Peters' eponymous projection critiques all but which of the following characteristics of the Mercator Projection?
b. Its lack of originality
What is critical GIS use for mapmaking technology?
c. Using vintage mapmaking technology
What is not a social implication of the growth of LBS?
d. The state becomes able to surveil citizens in near-real time