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What are signs that indicate a medical emergency?

unusual noise, sight, odor, appearance, behavior.

List some barriers to action

presence of other people, unsure of victim's condition, type of injury or illness, fear of catching disease, fear of doing something wrong, being unsure when to call 911.

Name the 3 C's

check, call, care.

Check what?

scene safety, victims, bystanders, signs and clues, airway, breathing, circulation.

Call who?

911 or EMS.

How long should you check a victim's breathing?

10 seconds.

Define: implied consent

to assume a victim would give permission to treat them if they were conscious.

Transmitting diseases key things

can be airborne, in a fluid, or vector (bite), injured person must be infected, rescuer has to have a break in skin, must be sufficient amount of pathogens.

Define: pathogens

a disease causing microorganism.

Care for first 2 minutes IF:

unconscious adult, adolescent, or infant, or witnessed collapse.

Call first FOR:

cardiac emergencies, drowning victims, unwitnessed collapse.

Walking assist move

1 or 2 persons with a conscious person, use your body as a crutch, don't use if suspected head, neck, or back injury.

Pack strap carry

use with conscious person, place person on your back and cross arms in front of you, don't use if suspect head, neck, or back injury.

2 person seated carry

requires 2 people, use with conscious victim not seriously injured, interlock arms and place under knees to carry.

Clothes drag

Use on unconscious or conscious person WITH suspected head, neck, or back injuries. keep head, neck, back, stable. grab clothing behind neck, pull to safety while supporting head in your forearms.

Blanket drag

used to move unconscious person or conscious, support person on side and place blanket underneath, roll person back onto back and gather blanket at the head and move gently.

Foot drag

use when a person is too large, firmly grasp ankles and move backwards in straight line, DO NOT BUMP HEAD, CHECK SCENE!

Body mechanics to know

feet shoulder width apart, knees flexed, back straight, work in direction of your efforts, close to load, push and pull DON'T LIFT, get help, work in unison.

Water victims care

reach victim BUT KEEP YOURSELF SAFE FIRST, call 911, stablize victim face up place one arm under shoulders and one under hips, support victim in water until EMS arrives. flip victim over if face down

respiratory organs

airway and lungs.

respiratory system job

supplies body with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide by breathing.

common respiratory problems

asthma, respiratory distress, respiratory arrest.

circulatory organs

heart, blood, blood vessels.

Which direction do arteries and veins pump blood?

arteries pump blood away from the heart, veins pump towards.

circulatory system job

transports nutrients and oxygen to body cells and removes waste products.

common circulatory problems

cardiac arrest, heart attacks, blood clots.

nervous system organs

brain, spinal cord, nerves.

nervous system job

transmits messages to and from the brain to regulate all of the body and its' systems.

common nervous system problems

paralysis, seizures, strokes, concussions, fainting, loss of consciousness.

musculo-skeletal organs

bones, ligaments, tendons.

What can you sprain and strain?

sprain ligaments and muscles, strain tendons.

musculo-skeletal job

provides framework, protects internal organs, allows movement and heat.

common musculo-skeletal problems

breaks, tears, sprains, strains, and fractures.

integumentary system organs

skin, nails, hair.

integumentary system job

prevents infection, dehydration, and regulates body temperature.

common integumentary system problems

breaks, tears, punctures, lacerations, abrasions.

digestive system organs

mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, gallbladder.

digestive system job

breaks down food to supply body with energy.

common digestive system problems

ulcers, choking, allergies, food poisioning.

endocrine system organs


endocrine system job

secretes hormones into blood.

common endocrine problem


genitourinary system organs

uterus, genitilia, kidneys, bladder.

genitourinary system job

reproduction, removes waste, and regulates water balance.

common genitourinary system problems

dehydration, infections.

What is the medical term for a bruise?


List body cavities from head to toe

cranial, thoracic, abdominal, pelvic.

common breathing emergencies

choking, illnesses, asthma, electrocution, shock, drowning, heart attack, allergic reactions, drugs, emphysema, bronchitis, croup, hyperventilating.


a condition that narrows the breathing passages and makes it difficult to breathe, caused by a spasm of the muscle lining in the bronchi.

asthma signs and symptoms

wheezing, difficulty breathing, painful breathing.

asthma treatment

medications (inhaler, fresh air).


a disease resulting in inflammation of the lining of the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles.

bronchitis signs and symptoms

persistent cough, chest tightness, difficulty breathing.

bronchitis treatment


anaphylatic shock

a severe allergic reaction that can restrict and swell a person's chest cavity and cause death.

anaphylatic shock causes/symptoms

caused by insect stings, food, medication. symptons include chest tightness, swelling of throat, face, and neck, difficulty breathing, dizziness, confusion.

anaphylatic shock treatment

epipen, call 911.


a common viral illness in children that causes swelling of the tissues around the vocal cords, characterized by a "seal bark" type of cough.

croup treatment

fresh cool air, steamy bathroom.


a bacterial infection that causes severe inflammation of the epiglottis.

epiglottitis signs and treatment

appear ill, fever, sore throat, sitting up to breathe, drooling, difficulty swallowing. treat with antibiotics.


occurs when breathing is faster than normal, imbalance of oxygen and carbon dioxide, occurs in nervous people, people who are in shock and tense.

hyperventilation treatment

relax the victim.

general respiratory distress care

call 911, help victim rest comfortably, monitor abc's, keep victim from overheating or chilling, assist victim in taking medications.

Respiratory distress can lead to...?

respiratory arrest and body systems deterioration, cardiac arrest, death.

2 types of choking

anatomical, mechanical.

Stopping choking techniques

5 back blows, 5 abdominal thrusts

heart attack symptoms

chest pain, chest heaviness, pale skin, weak pulse, nausea, vomitting, pain radiating to left arm, indigestion, short of breath, sweating.

heart attack care

call 911, rest in comfortable posistion, take nitroglycerine under tongue if available (1 every 3 minutes), montior abc's.

adult cpr guidelines

2 hands on sternum, compress 1 1/2 inches-2inches, 30-2 compression to breaths rate, 5 cycles in 2 minutes.

child cpr guidelines

1 hand on chest, (rescue breathing is 1 every 3 seconds), compress 1 inch-1 1/2 inches, 5 cycles in 2 minutes.

infant cpr guidelines

2 fingers, (rescue breathing is 1 every 3 seconds), mouth covers over mouth and nose, compress 1/2inch-1inch, 5 cycles in 2 minutes.

cardiac chain of survival

early recognition, early cpr, early defibrilation, early advanced medical care.

When do you stop cpr?

try not to however, if the scene becomes unsafe, victim shows signs of life, aed becomes available, another trained responder arrives, too exhausted to continue.

causes of cardiac arrest

drugs, respiratory arrest, drowning, electrocution, weak heart, suffocation, firearm injuries, poison, genetic history factors.


process which blood thickens at a wound site to seal a hole or tear and stop bleeding.

direct pressure

pressure applied on a wound to control bleeding


loss of a large amount of blood in a short period of time.

signs of internal bleeding

discoloration, tenderness, swollen, hard tissues, anxiety, restlessness, rapid breathing, cool, moist, pale skin, nausea, vomitting, excessive thirst, declining level of consciousness.

closed wound general care

apply direct pressure, apply cold pack, call 911 if severe.

minor open wound general care

wash out, apply sterile dressing, direct pressure, antiobiotic ointment.

major open wound general care

do NOT wash, apply clean dressing, apply direct pressure, bandage, call 911.

embedded objects wound care

do NOT remove object unless it's preventing breathing, use bulky bandages, be careful not to further move object, control bleeding, call 911.

causes of burns

heat, chemicals, electricity, solar radiation.

first degree burns signs and symptoms

red, dry skin, area is painful, area is swollen (superficial).

second degree burns signs and symptoms

red, wet, skin, open and closed blisters, skin spotted and blotchy, painful, swollen, (deep).

third degree burns signs and symptoms

brown or charred skin, tissue underneath appear white, painful, may be life threatening*.

critical burns locations

face, hands, feet, genitals, airway.

general burns care

stop burning process, cool the burned area, cover the burned area with a bandage, minimize shock, call 911 if third degree.

rocky mountain spotted fever

a serious tick borne disease caused by wood or dog ticks

rocky mountain spotted fever signs and symptoms

spotted rash on ankles or wrists that spreads, fevers, chills, severe headaches, joint and muscle aches. early treatment important because victim could die of kidney failure!!

lyme disease signs and symptoms

tick bite, red rash in bulls eye appearance, fevers, chills, headaches, fatigue, flu-like symptons. contracted by deer ticks

stings and bites signs and symptoms

stinger present, bite marks, pain, local swelling, rash, hives, nausea, difficulty breathing, itchiness.

stings and bites general care

remove stinger by scraping with fingernail or credit card, never use tweezers (only with ticks), wash wound, cover with bandage, apply ice, watch for allergic reactions.

spider bites signs and symptoms

bite marks, black widow bites exhibit sharp pain, brown recluse bites swell and blister, pain, cramping, nausea, vomitting, difficulty breathing/swallowing, sweating, irregular heartbeat.

spider bites care

call 911 as soon as possible, antivenin!

snake bites signs and symptoms

fang bite marks, pain, burning, swelling, tingling, numbness.

snake bite care

wash, apply ice, immobolize, call 911, if pit viper you need antivenin.

jellyfish sting care

soak in vinegar, alcohol, or baking soda paste (with water).

stingray sting care

immobolize, soak in warm water until pain is gone, call 911 if severe.

tetanus signs and symptoms

irritability, headache, fever, painful muscle spasms, symptons occur 3 to 5 days after bites/cuts. call 911.

head, neck, back injuries causes

fall from heigh greater than own, motor vehicle accidents, blunt forces, violence, lightning.

head injury symptoms

change in level of consciousness, pain, pressure, tingling sensation, partial/complete paralysis, blood from ears/nose, seizures, vomitting, nausea, impaired vision, headache, loss of balance, bruising around head/eyes.

inline stabilization warnings

never use if head is severely angled, victim has pain, pressure, or muscle spasms, there is resistance when attempting to move head!

spine parts from top to bottom

cervic, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, coccyx.

eye injury general care

keep on back, do not remove any embedded objects, apply dressing around object, stabilize object with cup, call 911.

common ear injuries

soft tissue damage, eardrums, loss of hearing.

ear injury general care

do NOT apply direct pressure, cover lightly, call 911.

scalp injury care

control bleeding with direct pressure, DO NOT apply direct pressure if skull feels spongy (indicates skull fracture).

check injury care

if bleeding inside of the mouth place dressings on inside and apply direct pressure, remove any embedded objects ONLY if impairs breathing, pull object in same direction it entered, apply pressure outside of mouth, sit and lean victim forward.

concussion causes

force to head, causes temporary impairment of brain, may lose consciousness, memory, have severe headaches.

concussion care

rest, medical help - could be severe!

nose injury care

sit victim with head forward, pinch nose, apply ice, call 911 if caused by high blood pressure (bleeding).

chest injury signs and symptoms

breathing difficulty, severe pain, obvious deformity, bruising, discoloration of skin, coughing up blood.

chest injury general care

posistion in comfortable way to aid breathing, if ribs are broken bind arm to injured side.

sucking chest wound care

apply occlusive dressing, treat other life threatening injuries, keep one corner of dressing open.

abdominal injury signs and symptoms

severe pain, external bleeding, nausea, vomitting, bruising, pale ashen moist skin, weakness, thirst, rigid abdomen, organs protruding from abs.

abdominal injury general care

lie victim on back, bend knees to reduce pain, call 911, control bleeding.

pelvis injury signs and symptons

protruding organs, pain, bruising, bleeding, severed body parts... same care as abdominal injuries.

soft splint

blankets, towels, pillows, slings.

rigid splints

boards, metal strips, folded magazines.

anatomic splints

refers to the use of the body like arms, legs.

commerical splint

traction with pulleys and weights.

slings and cravats

triangular bandages used to support arms, forearms, dressings, and bandaids.

splinting key things

support injured thing in posistion you found it, cover open wounds, check area above and below color/warmth/feeling, apply splint above and below, sling into place not directly over injury, check fingers/toes for circulation, elevate if possible, rest, apply ice, prevent shock.

upper extremities

forearm, phalanges, carpals, metacarpals.

shoulder injuries

clavicle, scalpula, humerous, sprains, fractures, dislocation of shoulder.

shoulder injury general care

control bleeding, support in comfortable posistion, if away from body use pillow to support under arm, create sling splint, ice, call 911 if broken.

arm injuries

humerous, radius, ulna, fractures.

arm injury general care

immobolize from shoulder to elbow, control bleeding, sling, if elbow injured DO NOT MOVE, call 911 if you can't find pulse.

lower extremity injuries

femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsal, metatarsals, phalanges.

femur fraction key signs

leg turned outward, muscle contracted, leg appears shorter, swollen, possible external bleeding.

lower extremity general care

control any bleeding, immobolize, rest in comfortable posistion, elevate if possible, support leg, monitor color/warmth/feeling, call 911 if suspected broken.

knee injuries

sprains, cuts, bruises, fractures, dislocations.

knee injury general care

control bleeding, support/eleveate knee, ice, rest, splint if it can be straightened.

ankle and foot injuries

sprains, fractures, tears, strains.

ankle and foot injury general care

control bleeding, immobolize with soft splint, check toes for warmth/feeling/color, elevate, ice, call 911 if suspected broken.

fainting (syncope)

temporary reduction of blood flow to the brain.

fainting signs and symptoms

complete loss of consciousness, temporary reduction of blood to head, collapse.

fainting general care

call 911, posistion on flat surface, monitor abc's, loosen clothing, elevate legs.


disruption of blood flow to brain that can cause death or serious brain damage by a clotted artery.

stroke signs and symptoms

altered level of consciousness, look/feels ill, sudden weakness, numbness, difficulty speaking or being understood, blurred vision, unequal pupils, severe headache, ringing in ears, drooling, loss of bladder control.

stroke general care

call 911 fast, monitor abc's, clear fluids from mouth, reassure and comfort, don't give food.

2 types of strokes

transit ischimic attack and cerebreal vascular accident.

List ways to prevent a stroke

control blood pressure, diet, do not smoke, exercise regularly, control diabetes.


the pancreas doesn't produce unsulin that helps with glucose buildup.

diabetes type 1

juvenile diabetes, insulin dependent diabetes where the body produces little or no insulin. must inject insulin into the body.

diabetes type 2

adult onset diabetes, noninsulin dependent, body produces insulin but no enough, is more common, can be controlled by diet.


hypo is when the insulin level is too high and sugar level is too low, hyperglycemia is too low and sugar is too high.

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