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23 terms

Earthquakes Volcanoes Study Guide

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Seismic wave
wave that passes through Earth
Cinder cone
small, steep volcano with a cone made of tephra
Earthquake
vibrations that occur when rocks break due to stress
Tsunami
seismic sea wave
Lava
magma that has reached the surface of Earth
Magnitude
number based on seismic wave amplitude; the measurement of a Richter scale
Focus
underground center of an earthquake
Seismic safe
structures that can withstand earthquakes
Tephra
bits of rock or solidified lava dropped from the air
Seismograph
instrument used to record earthquakes
Volcanoes
cone-shaped mountains that spew out lava or gas
Fault
break in Earth's rocks caused by stress
Rift
long crack where plates diverge
Hot spots
large rising bodies of magma not at plate boundaries
Epicenter
point on Earth's surface directly above the focus
Shield
volcano formed by gentle eruptions of fluid lava
Magma
molten rock inside Earth
Convergent boundary
subduction takes place at a convergent boundary
Convection currents
tectonic plates are moved around by these currents
Surface waves
are the slowest and largest of the seismic waves and cause most of the destruction during an earthquake
Pyroclastic flow
an avalanche of glowing rocks flowing on a cushion of hot gases
Richter Scale
measures the magnitude of an earthquake
Lithosphere
is divided into about 13 major plates