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Whitehead APUSH Chapters 13-14

Election of 1824

4 Candidates:
-John Quincy Adams: successful secretary of state before
-Andrew Jackson
-Henry Clay
-William Crawford: favorite son, from South Carolina
No one get the majority (Jackson: 99, Adams: 84, Clay: 37) Clay essentially gets to choose who gets to be president by giving them his votes; Clay and Adams have a meeting where Adams may have bribed Clay with becoming Secretary of State, but anyhow, Clay tells his people to vote for Adams; both Clay and Adams deny the bribe, but neither ever politcally recover from this

"favorite son" candidate

someone who is nominated for an office as an honor, with no expectation of victory

Office of 1825

President: JQ Adams
VP: JC Calhoun
Secretary of State: Henry Clay

The split of the Democratic Republicans

divided by Jackson:
his followers found the Democratic Party,
his haters form the "Whigs Party"

Democratic Party

followers of Jackson; "Party of the Common Man;" represented the lower class; they want every mans' vote to count as 1

Whigs Party

Founded in 1834 to unite faction opposed to President Jackson. The party favored federal responsibility for internal improvements. It ceased to exist by late 1850's when the party members divided over the issue of slavery. It was led by Henry Clay.

Election of 1828

Jackson defeats John Quincy Adams


taking out your opponent's supporters in office and replacing them with your own; "To the victor go the spoils" (-Andrew Jackson); good because it got people involved in the government but bad because it can get corrupted at every level

President Andrew Jackson

At first, his inagural party becomes a drunken brawl. He takes out of office every man from JQ Adams. His cabinet was made from all of his friends- "The Kitchen Cabinet." He presides over the 1st removal of Native Americans

Kitchen Cabinet

Jackson's cabinet was made up of his friends and supporters, not people who deserved the job

J. C. Calhoun

(vice president) he opposed the high tariff and said that a state could nullify a federal law that could harm their state

high tariff

the tax on imported goods was raised; South hated it because then importing countries would raise the price of their goods; Henry Clay favors it

Opinion of Nullification

states could refuse to collect a federal tariff; hotly debated in legislature; theory eventually reaches Congress, who rejects it completely (the constitution said the "we the PEOPLE" not "we the states")

Robert Hayne

A man from South Carolina who said that the Union was a union of states, so a state could opt out of the union

High tariff

Lower than before, but enough to piss some people off; South Carolina responds by passing the Ordinance of Nullification

Ordinance of Nullification

says that SC will not participate in collecting the new tariff, and if the federal government opposes, SC will secede from the Union; Jackson doesn't like the tariff, but he knows the Union must stay together so he enlists the help of Henry Clay to talk to Calhoun and settle something

Compromise Tariff

drawn up by mostly Henry Clay; gradually lowers tariffs over 10 years, to the value it was in 1816; gives companies in the North time to adjust to the lower tariffs

Force Act

Jackson insisted on this; said that the president has the power to enforce a tariff, using military force if necessary

Indian Resettlement Act

(1830) Under Andrew Jackson; we have completely different views on land and property; they were to be moved across the Mississippi to the land between the Red and the Arkansas Rivers (Oklahoma); some fought against this Act in 1832 in the "Black Hawk War"

Black Hawk War

Sac and Fox Indians fight under Chief Black Hawk; Abe Lincoln fights in this (not impressed by the Democrats); Indians obviously are going to loose due to their lack of weapons

Seminole War

The Seminole Indians combined with a large number of runaway slaves waged war from Florida's Everglades. There bitter guerilla warfare lasted 10 years, and even longer after the Americans treacherously captured their leader Osceola. The Government gives up, and the Seminole retreat to the Everglades

Trail of Tears

The Cherokee tried to fit in by wearing white-men's clothing, they owned slaves, and made an alphabet. But they were still forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory (where is now Oklahoma). More than 4,000 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.

Election of 1832

Whigs: Henry Clay
Democrats: Andrew Jackson
Jackson wins by majority (he even wins KY, Clay's homestate); Clay never recovers from this: this is the end of his power and the National Bank

National Bank Charter

The National Bank is set to expire in 1836, but Henry Clay introduces a bill to continue it. Jackson vetoes the bill. This is the first time a president outright rejects a bill without giving a reason, he realizes he doesn't have to.

Nicholas Biddle

He was an American financier who was also president of the Bank of the United States. He was also known for his bribes. He was in charge during the bank war, where Jackson refused to deposit federal funds, which bled the bank dry. He says that if Jackson can do that, he can call in all the paper money in Gold. This kills lots of little banks.

Stephen Austin

established the 1st American colony in Texas where people are bringing in slaves (illegal in Mexico, but isn't enforced north of the Rio Grande

Samuel Houston

the General who helped Austin lead the Americans in Texas; talked of a revolution; asked Congress if they would admit Texas as a State of the Union as a slave state

Battle of the Alamo

a pivotal event in the Texas Revolution. Following a 13-day siege, Mexican troops under Santa Anna launched an assault on this mission near San Antonio. All but two of the Texian defenders were killed. Santa Anna's perceived cruelty during the battle inspired many Texians—both Texas settlers and adventurers from the United States—to join the Texian Army. Wanting revenge, the Texians defeated the Mexican Army at the Battle of San Jacinto where the Treaty was signed ending the revolution.

Santa Anna

military dictator in Mexico; decides to move troops north of the Rio Grande; moved them into a fort filled with Americans called Alamo and killed them

Treaty of San Jacinto

Mexicans were camping here; Americans surround them and tell Santa Ana (who was only wearing underwear) to sign Texas over to the Americans

Martin Van Buren

Jackson's successor (presidential candidate); Whigs didn't nominate anyone except "favorite sons" to try to steal votes from him; he was rumored to be the son of Aaron Burr (not true)

Specie Circular

says the Department of Treasury won't accept any more bank notes, only species (money); price of bank notes drops, and small banks go out of business; thus the Economic Crisis of 1837

Erie Canal

completed in 1825; connected Lake Erie to the Hudson River, other canals branch off of this


Robert Fulton in New York takes a watt engine, puts a wheel on it, and makes a power wheel to power the 1st one in 1807; they can go up river too, not just down


began in Britain in 1820 and in America in 1840; America had 30,000 miles of track in 1860; industries grow wherever there are railroads; cheap way to travel; Cincinnati passed up an opportunity to become the Western railroad hub, and Chicago took the offer (Cincy bets on steamboats)

clipper ships

narrow, 3 masts; sailed to China for tea, porcelain, and other goods; very fast: took only 75 days to get to Asia

whale oil

used as lamp oil and other parts used for perfume

Irish Immigrants

poor and uneducated and Catholic; not popular, seen as "unAmerican;" they go to the port cities the protestant US because of "papish superstition" and they're seen on the East coast; they are "ghettoified" immediately; only accepted at first because of cheap labor

Catholic education

New immigrant Catholics need to learn to become American by learning to read and write, and to live the Faith. It takes about 25 years after the Civil War to finally fit in with American Culture

German Immigrants

political refugees (major outbreak in Germany against Republicans); some are Catholic, most are Lutheran, some Presbyterian; they have a little money and have some useful skills (nunchuck skills, computer hacking skills...); they settle in cities past the mountains (Cincy, St. Louis, Chicago); bring trades: brewing, small businesses, machinery

Eli Whitney

invented a Cotton Engine to separate the cotton threads from the seeds


now mechanized by the Cotton Gin; requires a lot of work and is better for the land than tobacco, the market grows in England; it revives slavery (increased need for slaves); makes the South the chief world wide seller of cotton

Levi jeans

working-men's pants in 1848

McCormick Reaper

machine that harvested many times faster then doing it with hands; pulled by horses; revolutionizes farming; allows America to compete in a world-wide market

Colt Patent Fire Arms Company

mechanically makes reparable fire arms and rifles (new: revolver); was only in the North, not in the South (advantage for the North in the Civil War)

Improvements in society

soap (people are cleaner); furniture: beds (used to be a luxury, now a common necessity, babies are born on beds not on the floor: decreased infant mortality due to lack of infection and post partum death); canned goods and fresh meat (less food born illness)

Washington Irving

1st "American" writer; beings writing in 1810's about colonial NY; wrote about colonial New York' wrote the "Legend of Sleepy Hallow"; focused around the Knicker Bocker Club and wrote the "Knicker Bocker Tales"

James Fenimore Cooper

he's a romantic writer about the colonial past of NY; invented the first American superhero: Natty Bumbo (a frontiersman) in the Leather Stocking Tales

Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864)

wrote "the Scarlet Letter" and "House of Seven Gables"; very dark (sin, guilt, sex-everything anti-Puritan); ancestor of one of the judges at the Salem Witch Trials

Herman Melville

made a bigger impact than Hawthorne; "Tales of the South Seas"; went from whaling to an island, back to his home and wrote about his adventures; wrote "Oomo" and "Typee"(both accused of being immoral, weren't really); made him rich so he wrote his most famous novel, "Moby Dick"; becomes America's most iconic novel in the 19th century around the world, although most of his work doesn't get recognized until after he dies

Edgar Allen Poe

invented the short story; wrote gothic literature about physical and psychological horror; hardly known during his life; he is loved in France, but not so much in America; Dickens in England wanted to meet him but died mysteriously


writes narrative poetry ling epic poetry; it celebrates American history; wrote "Evangeline" and "Hiawatha"

Walt Whitman

wrote free verse poetry; celebrates nature and 'being a human being' (freedom of an individual); he had trouble getting published; was a nurse in the civil war; wrote "Leaves of Grass" and "Captain, Oh My Captain" about Abe Lincoln

Ralph Waldo Emerson

from Massachusetts, stressed the need for individual freedom and action; was a part of the transcendentalists with Thoreau; wanted to publish Whitman's poems; one of the first people to popularize Buddhist and Hindu text


believe that all humans are connected in nature through what is called the "oversoul;" drawn from Oriental religions

Henry David Thoreau

transcendentalist with Emerson (falls in love with his wife); critic of the industrial revolution (1st environmentalist); individual above all else; wrote "Civil Disobedience" (an individual must not obey a law that is immoral); fun fact! His family invented the lead pencil.

Election of 1840

Democrats nominate Van Buren, Whigs nominate William Henry Harrison ("Old Tippecanoe") (who was a former Democrat) with John Tyler; Henry Clay wants to be nominated, but he doesn't because he's a looser.


was a very big deal; American colonies were founded on it, most importantly Plymouth (they were religious refugees); main was Protestantism; was at a high during the Great Awakening, and a low in the 1820's (American Revolution) Importance of it:
~Virginia and Carolinas: more of a club, not that important
~Mountains: the people were Presbyterian; highly evangelical
~frontiersmen: lacked religion; was a Godless and lawless area
~Catholics: were a minority until the end of the 19th century
~Baptists: a Presbyterian sect


don't baptize babies, only adults (some were persecuted for this in Europe)

New Light Revival

movement that begins in the Presbyterian Church; supposed to revive religious-ness; untrained preachers go from town to town "saving souls," baptizing, and preaching the Gospels

The Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints

founded by Joseph Smith in 1847, said that he had a vision, influenced by the New Light Revival; it was fully American


makes Mormons outcasts; wherever they settle, they are disliked; the Mormon group moved from Iowa->Missouri->Utah; Smith was killed in Missouri and Bringham Young (a follower) was "told by God" to go to Utah

Slave religion

it was weird because they believed that they don't have souls; said it "was better to choose the side of caution"; mostly became Presbyterians

William Henry Harrison

gets a cold from his two hour inaugural speech while it was windy and cold; develops into pneumonia; dies two months later; 1st president to die in office, succeeded by John Tyler

John Tyler

was VP but becomes the first one to become president because of a previous president's death in office; makes it known that he was now fully president; he was a Whig, although he vetoed many Whig legislations; he was really a Democrat; believed in manifest destiny

Manifest Destiny

the USA was "destined" by God to expand across the prairie to the sea

Oregon Trail

it was a trail to get to Oregon from the East

Fur trade

a luxury that was popular with Britain and America

54°/40 or Fight

the slogan for James K Polk's election (line above Oregon); he wanted to make it a territory for the US

California Gold Rush

gold discovered in California after it was sold to America by Mexico; thousands of people rush to Claifornia; trails were made from St. Louis; upset the Native Americans who lived there, so they started to attack wagons; forts were set up to protect the wagon trains and were guarded by American troops (Ft. Dodge and Ft. Laramie); they would shoot with rifles from horseback, which made them dangerous

Treaty of Ft. Laramie

Lakota Indians would receive $50,000 a year if they would refrain from attacking wagon trains

Women's rights

Abigail Adams told her husband that women's rights should be mentioned in the Constitution, such as the right to vote, but it wasn't; a woman cannot own ANYTHING; no legal standard (can't sue in court)

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

was the main leader of women's rights reforms

Dorthea Dix

was a leader of prison and asylum reform; a mental person would normal be taken care of by the family and village ('village idiot'); eventually they are sent by the government to asylums; these people aren't prisoners, so they shouldn't be treated like them

Temperance movement

alcoholism is a common thing; anyone could buy a drink; the movement was about getting rid of the sale of it; the American Temperance Union was founded in 1836; run by women

public education

state mandated tax supported education; began in Massachusetts; Horace Mann and Edward Bonnard wanted tax-supported education; Massachusetts legislation was passed to set aside money to pay for schools and teachers; if democracy was to survive, then men and women needed to have educated votes; all states set up grade schools; in 1850; 6-8 years of public education was very common


makes the first dictionary of the American language; it defines the language


wanted to abolish slavery; all societies concerned about this were based on religion, not economics: (The Scots-Irish, Congregationalists ,and Quakers thought that it was morally wrong); Ben Franklin was the only founding father who was involved in such movements

Benjamin Lundy

his newspaper and society was called the "Genius of Universal Emancipation"; supports colonization; they would by slaves and free them and send them "home" to Africa (it doesn't work; 2 colonies in Africa's west coast are purchased as a home for emancipated slaves by Abolition societies [British send them to Sierra Leone and Americans sent them to Liberia]); it was a minority opinion

William Lloyd Garrison

founds another newspaper and society called the "Liberator"; fully supported integration; joins others to form the American Anti-Slave Society (has 150,000 members-very large society, very militant) attacks everything against him (churches and Congress); says that no abolitionist should hold office, because the nation was founded on slavery; there is more opposition to women's rights than abolitionism

American Anti-Slave Society

Main activist arm of the U.S. abolition movement, founded by William Llyod Garrison and Arthur Tappan, which sought an immediate end to slavery in the country

Frederick Douglass

great speaker; agrees with Garrison with everything that he says; wrote an autobiography

Liberty Party

moderate abolitionists formed this party; unsuccessful in winning Congregationalist elections, but it influences mainstream politics, especially the Whigs

Underground Railroad

many "stops and stations" (safehouses); it was illegal to help slaves to freedom; "conductors" of the railroad were the people who helped the slaves get to the north and risked their lives to do it; two famous conductors were Harriet Tupman and Sojourner Truth

Harriet Beecher Stowe

writes a novel about escaped slaves' stories

Uncle Tom's Cabin

strongly opposed slavery; made slavery real; best seller; made people cry; it was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe

Opinions of the North and South

•North: most are indifferent; new immigrants work for cheap, but not for free like slaves
•South: almost impossible to free slaves because of legislature; manumission (freeing a slave personally) illegal now; "if you believe in it, they shouldn't be freed"; no freeing after 1840

Gag Rule

1835 law passed by Congress which made it illegal to talk of abolition or anti-slavery arguments in Congress; proposed by JC Calhoun

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