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The injured pig
- a story about child rearing (bringing up children/process of it)
- the story showed that children cannot be neglected, the children in the story were shooting and they shot a pig. an adult witness saw, and he did nothing about it -- the court punished him and the children, him for his negligence
Kingsolver: Canary Islands
- observations from Barbara Kingsolver, her and her 4 yr old daughter from the US lived for a year in the Canary Islands of Spain
- the culture in Spain treated children really well, in the US people hate kids
Government regulating and controlling the population rate, altering family composition.
China: in late 1970s, implemented the single-child policy which results in one child for each 2 parents and 4 grandparents
- this change lead to questions about spoiling kids, pressure from parents and peer skills
- average number of births have dropped from 7 to 2.5
- mexican government set up clinics to control size of family
Mexico and China differences affect child rearing
Infant Mortality Rates
Communities with high infant mortality rates, the parents priorities for their children may be very different for communities that don't have that issue.
New England preacher who had 15 kids and only 2 of them survived. The measles took his wife and three kids died within to weeks.
Levine parental child-rearing goals
Levine proposed a three level hierarchy of parental child-rearing goals for communities with high infant mortality rates.
1. parents must first consider a child's physical survival and health
2. parental priorities involving preparing children to maintain themselves economically in maturity
3. if the first two are met, parents can devote more energy to considering each child's potential to maximize other cultural values
Infant Mortality Rates-
- a practice used in tropical Africa, as an adaption to prevent infant mortality
- the parents give each child very attentive care, breast-fed for a long time, sleeps with mom, fed on demand
- prevents common danger of dehydration
Infanticide and Child abandonment
Killing a child within a year of birth or abandoning them. Occurs when difficulties supporting child or when the child is unhealthy. When abandoning or sending away, they hope they will live a better life.
In Shantytown Brazil, babies normally die before 1 years old leading mothers to becoming hopeless
-Selective Neglect: not doing anything to prevent the death of the baby. Seen as appropriate for a mother "They were weak its better for them to die young instead of struggle and they become more attached.
-Maternal Bonding Model: The bond between mother and child at early infancy. S-H believes that maternal attachment is innate and not all about abuse and neglect, it is because of failure in maternal bonding, a supportive community is just as important for survival.
The Strange Situation
Experiment that observes how infants relate to their mothers. Having them leave the room, to see how infant handles separation, and observing behavior once reunited.
-Secure Attatchment: The child explores the room, friendly before separation, mild wariness alone, and no anger once reunited (African American)
-Anxious/ resistant: The child has high distress when alone and once reunited they are not easily comforted and seeks contact (Japanese)
-Anxious/ avoidance: The child has low distress when alone, but once reunited they avoid and look away (N. German)
-Nuclear families/serial monogamy
Families vary from culture; relationships are primarly parents and children while other communities and extended families play an important role.
-The nuclear family situation: with one or two parents(and one or two children) living isolated from kin, is a markedly different child-rearing environment from that experience by children surrounded by relatives.
-Serial Monogamy: Multiple spouses at one time
Teasing is an indirect means of everyday,non-hostile criticism.
Teasing teaches children appropriate emotional responses to challenging situations.
ex: In lower-income Black communities, signifying (trading clever insults), playing the dozens (Your momma is so...") or capping, demonstrate verbal fluency and quick-
wittiness or if inept lack of status or style.
Segregating children in groups of similar ages has clear impact on the opportunities for sibling care and interaction
-Institutional schooling in N. America separates kids based on ago which can limit interactions with people outside that age range
Engagement with adult tasks
-Child labor laws/unions
In communities where children aren't isolated they are able to observe adult activities, they watch then perform once they understand.
-Children employed in industry were explored as cheap labor under extreme and dangerous conditions
Child labor in industry was considered ethically as well as economically valuable through most of the 1800s
Most children and youth in the United States
Groups or Dyads
-Orientation (facing inward/outward)
-Mayan vs middle class American
-School (teacher vs teacher aid/ switchboard)
Most communities children are oriented with group activities rather than dyadic interactions.
-Orientation: infants towards others and engage with them
-Smoothly integrated into groups - Navajo children maintained interest in game when not making moves, EuroAmerican children lost interest when not controlling the game
-School: Yup'ik teachers aid and the teacher rearranging seats with "everyone face me" as synonymous with attention. "switchboard model" of interaction with teacher, often ignoring or not taking into account other students' contributions
Community defined markers
-Navajo life stages
-Mexico- the quincenera ceremony
-Age vs relative seniority
-Navajo Life Stages: once a baby has its first laugh then the naming ceremony is performed. Khaalada is he beginning of the womenhood
-Mexico: girls have quinceneras when 15 to celebrate becoming a women.
The Ngoni believed that children who had lost their first teeth, and acquired their scone, had reached a new stage in their development.
6-7 in a half (gap)
Socially because they had their second teeth, and because it was a sign of physical change and recognized for everyone, the Ngoni adult would regard these children as ready for a different kind of life
-the american questions
-intelligence quotient/ mental age
-The naming of a child marks the beginning of a personhood in Camroon after week old "spirit children"
-The American Question: metaphor for development; the assumption that children who pass milestones earlier in life will be more successful (walking/talking)
-IQ: invented to compare mental age to chronological age
Piagets Developmental Stages
-Perceptual Invariant Thought: sensory motor stage (object in mouth)
-Preoperational Intuitive Thought: (2-7 years old) able to make intuitive judgement about relationships, but can only attend to one property at a time. Can't concentrate. Objects change quantity when they change shape.
-Concrete Operational Thought: (7-11 years old) Concepts for dealing with complex visible processes but not competent in verbal reasoning. "Reversible thinking"
Formal Propositional Thought: (11-older) Capable of thinking in purely logical proporsitions that maybe be tested on a verbal plane. Dealing with second order symbols (1+1=2; a+b=c)
Hall Vs. Meads
G. Stanley Hall: saw the storm and stress of adolescence as an inevitable crisis.
Margret Meads: studied in Samoa to find the "universal crisis" in the young girls and their mothers, but she didn't find anything.
Urban Life and Youth Culture
urban life was viewed as a corrupting force because of gangs and violence, this was created within the youth community. New culture in America
Rites of Passage
-Rituals that transition individuals from one social status into another
-Separation: physically separated from familiar
-Liminal Period: "standing in the doorway" relearning and reeducation to the people stripping away old from new identity
-Reaggregation: reintroduced into society with new status
ex: Nkumbe forest people boys go through a process, white clay (death), stay in camp for weeks, circumsized, beaten, ect, return as men and throw away toys.
Marriage and Parenthood
Marriage in the majority of world's communities is arranged by the community or family, not just the two individuals.
◦ Before the industrial revolution, parents chose a husband
for their daughter based on personal qualities; love and personal attachment were secondary considerations.
Hindu belief that marriage affects so many people, it is too
important to be left to be left to one young person driven by
lust and passion.
Marriage is at the heart of the community and integral to its
◦ Division of labor in many societies require couples to
complement each other's skills.
Ojibwa marriage: husband a skilled hunter and trapper, the wife
with skilled needed for family to survive in the bush.
Generally, the more balanced the contributions, the more equal the relationship.
Gender Roles and Children Rearing
-The Bettry crocker ideal
-impact of agriculture and sedentary lifestyle
-rosie the riveter
changing family size
chrisis of confidence
aggressive behvaor :bullying etc
The "Betty Crocker" ideal is uncommon
◦ "New Model" Husbands claim to assist with housework but do little.
Family size decreased
◦ Cash outlay per child increased .
◦Child contribution to house hold reduced with child labor laws and
from 18% to 70%.
A 'crisis of confidence'
◦ Observed among Euro American preadolescent girls
becoming less confident and more deferential, concerned
with appearance and being liked.
◦ Many African American girls become more assertive and
◦ Boys become more physically aggressive than girls Physical bullying.
◦ Girls show more nurturing and responsible behavior than boys but also more relational aggression, such as malicious ostracism, gossip, and manipulation in some communities. Cyber-Bullying using cruel text-messaging
Goal of Socialization Euro-American vs Japanese
Euro American mothers' goal: individuality, self-expression, and from freedom from others in action and thought. (Child is born dependent and needs to be taught to 'stand on their own two feet' and eventually to 'leave the nest.")
Chinese American mothers' goal: becoming self-reliant and developing the social skills needed to become successful, contributing members of the family and society.
Japanese view child as born independent and needs to be taught to relate to and depend on others. Prepare child for lifetime engagement with the family.
U.S. belief that nighttime separation is essential to developing sense of independence and makes daytime separation easier
Cross-culturally most infants sleep with their mother
Ethnocentrism:Americans reacted as negatively to children sleeping with parents as members of other societies reacted with shock to the notion of American children sleeping alone.
Respect of autonomy/ non-intervention
Individual autonomy is a social product. One gains autonomy to the extent one grants it.
"One can never compel another to act." Papua New Guinea
- Non-intervention except when actions would cause serious harm. viewed by outsider as lack of control
- Forcing a child to follow the mother's agenda would be lack respect for the child's autonomy. (Roberto's trousers)
Siblings voluntarily respect infants autonomy, surrendering object they themselves want.
John Wesley vs John Dewey
In 1600s, children were viewed as wicked by nature and needing parental correction.
*John Wesley: After 1825, concerned with waning parental authority urged parents to take control early to combat the willful and inherently selfish nature of children.
Folk culture interpreted this as adult vs. child authority with only one "side" in control.
*John Dewey (1938) suggested that adults needed to guide, not control children, preferring collaboration to confrontation.
-Parental (authoritarian vs authoritative vs permissive (outcomes)
-Authoritarian - adults control children.
(For Euro American youth associated with more deviant behavior, poorer academic and psychosocial functioning and African American youth was the opposite)
Permissive - children have free rein
-Authoritative - parents guide children as well as consult them, with verbal give-and- take. (greater social and academic competence)
-Assimilation and altered cultural perceptions can effect the results of the different styles
-Teacher (controlling vs "veiled directives)
-If teachers use non-controlling talk, the children are more active and respond better.
-Non controlling talk ("veiled directives") may confuse student accustomed to more direct directives.
-Social constraints,Haitian children knew certain behaviors were wrong but ignored rules.
Kohlberg's Scale of Moral Reasoning
Stages 1,2. Egocentric account of moral reasoning based on
personal perspective, avoid harm or punishment.
(personal thought and reasoning)
Stage 3. Use rules and customs of group as a guide, the Golden Rule. (social norms and morals)
Stage 4. Interaction between competing groups with conflicting interests mediated by institutions.
(laws that are meant to be upheld)
Stages 5,6. Philosophical using 'higher-order' obligations or principles of justice. (human rights)
Morality: Hobbes vs. Confucius
Western system of morality derives from Judeo- Christian image of man as autonomous and responsible for his own actions. Requires a system to protect one from another based on fear of punishment (Hobbes)
In Confucian belief the universe itself is absolutely moral and humans need to act accordingly to achieve harmonious social order.
Moral behavior derives from conformity and resolving conflict through compromise to restore harmony.
Restorative Justice (goal)
-Navajo/South Carolina Sea Islanders
-The goal is not to punish but to restore harmony in the
community by making individuals aware of the impact of their behavior on others.
-The focus is less on the rights of the accused and more on the impact of his or her actions on others.
Navajo: healing circles
Sea Islanders (Africa): settle disputes through mediation because people who went to the law was looked down at
Competition: Cultural Factors
-Isreal: Kibburtizm, urban children
-Cook Islands: forma education vs uneducation
instilled in middle-class Euro American children leaves them with a rigid sense of self and tendency to avoid cooperative play initiated by others.
Urban children are more competitive compared to rural children:
- Israeli kibbutzim cooperated vs. urban Israeli children most likely to compete.
-Urban New Zealand children had trouble cooperating even when it cost them rewards, rural Maori children didn't.
Cook Island adults with little schooling shared coins in a game willingly, the more educated less so. Young children shared but shared less as their education advanced.
Competition in schools:
-Max Meyer and the "curve"
-Recongintion and Navajo cultural norms
-Monesorri vs public
Max Meyer proposed in Science (1908) that grading should follow a "normal" curve that forces competition.
Top 3% excellent, the next 22% superior, middle 50% medium, the next 22% inferior, and the bottom 3% failing.
This didn't help students learn
The use of individual competition and individual recognition to structure the classroom may be violate community norms.
ex: Navajo children avoid sticking out as a threat to the social structure; it embarrasses them. Yet competed vigorous in sports.
Montessori schools stress collaboration; Alex's school soccer team's first away game.
Middle-class U.S. parents regard children's attention seeking behavior as striving for achievement and reward such behavior, even misbehavior that attract attention.
Age segregation in the classroom adds to competition; same age children tend to compete more with one another.
Is formal proposition thought a universal?
Observed that children's thinking transforms in stages he presumed were universal. But formal propositional thought was not universal cross cultures.
Decentration- egocentric to reciprocal to reversibility (cognitive development when child shares the world with others)
is the ability to imaginatively view the world from the perspective of another.
taxonomic categories: putting animals in group, food items in another, and tools in another. Educated adults.
functional categories: putting related food and tools together (e.g. hoe and potatoes). Unschooled adults.
Maturity - o ti kpa
Ideas of developmental maturity, precocity, and retardation are tied to judgement regarding what aspects of human intelligence and behaviors are valued in the community.
Among the Baoulé of Ivory Coast, o ti kpa: value the performance of tasks for the family's welfare, connotes responsibility and initiative.
Literacy and logic
Literacy fosters examinations of propositions for their internal logic; text is treated as if meaning were contained in the text itself.
• Vai script is used by nonprofessional literates to personal communication, Arabic for religious texts, and English in schools.
• Different form of written script and different uses of literacy promoted distinct cognitive skills.
Gives form to the way people express ideas in conversation or writing.
• Japan: omit information the listener is easily able to infer if the listener were to take the narrator's perspective. Values empathy and collaboration: words "elegantly compressed" (Haiku)
• Euro American: descriptive of settings and emotions, elaborating a single experience often leads to a point of resolution (storytelling)
Ideals in the air
"Ideas in the air" synergistic ideas could not have derived from the work of any one individual or local research community.
- Darwin's evolution:an idea whose time had come.
"The child is scaffolded in the achievement of the activity either explicitly by the intelligence of the teacher or implicitly by that of the designer, now embedded in the constraints of the artifact with which the child is playing."
IMPLICIT: by the designer (not taught, generally known)
EXPLICIT: by the intelligence of the teacher (taught)
describe the various ways in which children learn as they participate and are guided by the values and practices of their culture communities
Mutual understanding occurs between people in interaction, it cannot be attributed to one person or another.
• People seek information on how to interpret ambiguous situation from the expressions of others.
ex: infants getting info from the direction the parent looks and points.
-Greeting rituals (inuit)
Joseph Suino, a Pueblo Indian , learned to understand the context o fa ritual from his father and his connection with long chains of events.
- A Sunday school teacher in an African American church recasting Biblical stories in contemporary Black English.
observed that children in Europe develop socially in two play ways:
-Role Play: work out the "scripts" of life, adult skills, roles, values, and beliefs
-Complementary Play: children test mutual understanding of adult roles; playing house
Middle Class Narrative Styles
children learn school-like discursive styles; practice explaining when, where, how, why, and who; and do well on standardized tests
Reading and Writing
white parents in Appalachian milltown taught children respect for reading, but unused in everyday life
African American children in a miltown taught respect for skillful and creative use of language but not about books or analytic style of discourse
Japan has long tradition of valuing nonverbal communication like the white space in brust paintings or calligraphy; succinctness is valued while speaking too much is associated with immaturity and empty-headedness
An American confronted with a thoughtful silence, assumes the question was not understood and poses yet another question
Stories of Gossip
Apache stories make you think about yourself. If you haven't been acting right, someone "goes hunting for you" and tells a story that makes you realize that other people have been watching you and talking about you, then you feel weak, real weak, like you are sick. You don't want to eat or talk anymore.
Euro American babies are packaged having little direct skin contact with their caregivers rely on sound to communicate
Japanese mothers have more bodily contact with infants
Intent Participation/"Learning by Osmosis"
Apprenticeship (uchedishis in Japan)
Apprentice participates as a peripheral but legitimate contributor to the production
Learning by Listening ("eaves dropping")
African American community in Louisiana, children under 8 don't engage in conversation with adults, but sit and listen to them talk
Inuit learned to hunt as boys from watching the men and listening and remaining unobtrusive
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