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AP US Government

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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCING GOVERNMENT IN AMERICA
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Democracy
a means of selecting policymakers and of organizing government so that policy represents and responds to the public's preferences.
Elite and class theory
argues that society is divided along class lines and that an upper-class elite rules on the basis of its wealth.
Government
institutions that make public policy for a society.
Gross domestic product
the total value of all goods and services produced annually by the United States.
Hyperpluralism
argues that too many strong influential groups cripple the government's ability to make coherent policy by dividing government and its authority.
Linkage institutions
institutions such as parties, elections, interest groups, and the media, which provide a linkage between the preferences of citizens and the government's policy agenda.
Majority rule
weighing the desires of the majority in choosing among policy alternatives.
Minority rights
protecting the rights and freedoms of the minority in choosing among policy alternatives.
Pluralist theory
argues that there are many centers of influence in which groups compete with one another for control over public policy through bargaining and compromise.
Policy agenda
the list of subjects or problems to which people inside and outside government are paying serious attention at any given time.
Policy gridlock
where each interest uses its influence to thwart policies it opposes so that no coalition forms a majority to establish policy.
Policy impacts
the effects a policy has on people and problems.
Policymaking institutions
institutions such as Congress, the presidency, and the courts established by the Constitution to make policy.
Policymaking system
institutions of government designed to respond to each other and to the priorities of the people by governmental action.
Political culture
an overall set of values widely shared within a society.
Political issue
this arises when people disagree about a problem or about public policy choices made to combat a problem.
Political participation
the ways in which people get involved in politics.
Politics
determines whom we select as our government leaders and what policies they pursue; in other words, who gets what, when, and how.
Public goods
things that everyone can share.
Public policy
a choice that government makes in response to some issue on its agenda.
Representation
the relationship between the leaders and the followers.
Single-issue groups
groups so concerned with one matter that their members cast their votes on the basis of that issue only.
CHAPTER TWO THE CONSTITUTION
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Anti-Federalists
opposed the new Constitution, feared the new Constitution would erode fundamental liberties, and argued that the new Constitution was a class-based document serving the economic elite.
Articles of Confederation
the document that outlined the voluntary agreement between states and was adopted as the first plan for a permanent union of the United States.
Bill of Rights
the first ten Amendments to the Constitution passed after ratification specifically protecting individual liberties to fulfill promises made by the Federalists to the Anti-Federalists in return for their support.
Checks and balances
each branch requires the consent of the others for many of its decisions.
Connecticut Compromise
the plan adopted at the Constitutional Convention to provide for two chambers in Congress, one representing states equally and the other representing states on the basis of their share of the population.
Consent of the governed
people must agree on who their rulers will be.
Constitution
a nation's basic law creating institutions, dividing power, and providing guarantees to citizens.
Declaration of Independence
the document used by the signers to announce and justify the Revolutionary War and which was specifically designed to enlist the aid of foreign nations in the revolt.
Equal Rights Amendment
was first proposed in 1923, passed by Congress in 1972, but was not ratified by three-fourths of the states; this amendment mandated equality of rights under the law regardless of gender.
Factions
groups of people, currently known as political parties or interest groups, who arise as a result of unequal distribution of wealth to seize the reins of government in their own interest.
Federalist Papers
articles written to convince others to support the new constitution.
Federalists
argued for ratification of the Constitution by writing the Federalist Papers; included Madison, Hamilton, and Jay.
Judicial review
the courts have the power to decide whether the actions of the legislative and executive branches of state and national governments are in accordance with the Constitution.
Limited government
clear restrictions on what rulers could do; this safeguards natural rights.
Marbury v. Madison
Judicial review was established in this 1803 Supreme Court case.
Natural rights
these are rights to which people are entitled by natural law, including life, liberty, and property.
New Jersey Plan
a plan by some of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention to provide each state with equal representation in Congress.
Republic
a system based on the consent of the governed where power is exercised by representatives of the public.
Separation of powers
each branch of government would be independent of the others.
Shays' Rebellion
a series of armed attacks on courthouses to prevent judges from foreclosing on farms.
U.S. Constitution
the document where the foundations of U.S. government are written, providing for national institutions that each have separate but not absolute powers.
Virginia Plan
a plan by some of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention to provide each state with a share of congressional seats based on its share of the population.
Writ of habeas corpus
this enables people who are detained by authorities to secure an immediate inquiry and reasons why they have been detained.
CHAPTER THREE FEDERALISM
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Block grants
broad program grants given more or less automatically to states and communities, which exercise discretion in how the money is spent.
Categorical grants
grants that can be used only for specific purposes or categories of state and local spending.
Cooperative federalism
where state and the national government responsibilities are mingled and blurred like a marble cake; powers and policies are shared.
Devolution
transferring responsibility for policies from the federal government to state and local governments.
Dual federalism
where states and the national government each remain supreme within their own spheres of power, much like a layer cake.
Elastic clause
the statement in the Constitution which says that Congress has the power to make all laws necessary and proper for carrying out its duties.
Enumerated powers
powers of Congress found in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution.
Extradition
the Constitution requires each state to return a person charged with a crime in another state to that state for trial or imprisonment.
Federalism
a system of shared power between two or more levels of government.
Fiscal federalism
the pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system.
Formula grants
a type of categorical grant where states and local governments do not apply for a grant but are given funds on the basis of a formula.
Full faith and credit
Article IV of the Constitution requires states to provide reciprocity toward other states' public acts, records, and civil judicial proceedings.
Gibbons v. Ogden
the 1824 Supreme Court case which further expanded Congress' power to regulate interstate and international commerce by defining commerce very broadly to incorporate every form of commercial activity.
Implied powers
powers beyond Congress' enumerated powers which ensure that it can carry out its duties.
Intergovernmental relations
the term used to describe the entire set of interactions among national, state, and local governments.
McCulloch v. Maryland
the 1819 Supreme Court case, which established the supremacy of the national government over the states, included both enumerated and implied powers of Congress.
Privileges and immunities
the Constitution prohibits states from discriminating against citizens of other states.
Project grant
categorical grants awarded on the basis of competitive applications.
Supremacy clause
Article VI of the Constitution states that the supreme law of the land is the Constitution, the laws of the national government, and treaties.
Tenth Amendment
specifies that powers not delegated to the national government are reserved for the state government or the people.
Unitary government
a system where all power resides in the central government.
CHAPTER FOUR CIVIL LIBERTIES AND PUBLIC POLICY
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Bill of Rights
the first ten amendments to the Constitution.
Civil Liberties
legal and constitutional protections against government infringement of political liberties and criminal rights.
Commercial Speech
communication in the form of advertising.
Cruel and unusual punishment
Eighth Amendment prohibits such punishment.
Eighth Amendment
forbids cruel and unusual punishment, although it does not define this phrase.
Establishment clause
First Amendment prohibits government from establishing a religion; is the basis for separation of church and state.
Exclusionary rule
prohibits government from including illegally obtained evidence in a trial.
Fifth Amendment
prohibits government from forcing individuals to testify against themselves.
First Amendment
establishes freedom of religion, press, speech, and assembly.
Fourteenth Amendment
prohibits states from denying equal protection of the laws.
Free exercise clause
government is prohibited in the First Amendment from interfering in the practice of religion.
Incorporation Doctrine
legal concept under which the Supreme Court has nationalized the Bill of Rights by making most of its provisions applicable to the states through the Fourteenth Amendment.
Libel
publication of false or malicious statements that damage someone's reputation.
Plea bargaining
an actual bargain struck between the defendant's lawyer and the prosecutor to the effect that the defendant will plead guilty to a lesser crime (or fewer crimes) in exchange for the state's promise not to prosecute the defendant for a more serious (or additional) crime.
Prior restraint
government instrument to prevent material from being published.
Probable cause
police must have a good reason to arrest someone.
Right to privacy
a contrived right from unstated liberties in the Bill of Rights.
Search warrant
written authorization from a court specifying the area to be searched and what the police are searching for.
Self-incrimination
testifying against oneself.
Sixth Amendment
designed to protect individuals accused of crimes; includes the right to counsel, the right to confront witnesses, and the right to a speedy and public trial.
Symbolic Speech
political actions instead of words.
Unreasonable searches and seizures
obtaining evidence without a good reason.
CHAPTER FIVE CIVIL RIGHTS AND PUBLIC POLICY
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Affirmative action
a policy designed to give special consideration to those previously discriminated against.
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
strengthened protections of individuals with disabilities by requiring employers and public facilities to make "reasonable accommodations" and prohibiting employment discrimination against people with disabilities.
Civil rights
extending citizenship rights to participate to those previously denied them.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
forbids discrimination in public accommodations and facilities.
Comparable worth
equal pay for equal worth.
Equal protection of the laws
provided by the Fourteenth Amendment mandating that all people be protected by the law.
Equal Rights Amendment
proposal that equality of rights under the law not be denied on the account of sex.
Fifteenth Amendment
provides the right to vote for Blacks.
Fourteenth Amendment
prohibits states from denying equal protection of the laws.
Nineteenth Amendment
provides women with the right to vote.
Poll Taxes
taxes levied on the right to vote designed to hurt poor Blacks.
Suffrage
the legal right to vote.
Thirteenth Amendment
abolished slavery and involuntary servitude.
Twenty-fourth Amendment
prohibited poll taxes in federal elections.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
a policy designed to reduce the barriers to voting for those suffering discrimination.
White Primary
practice where only Whites could vote in primaries.
CHAPTER SIX PUBLIC OPINION AND POLITICAL ACTION
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Census
a count of the American population conducted every ten years.
Civil disobedience
a form of unconventional participation designed to consciously break a law thought to be unjust.
Demography
the science of human populations.
Exit poll
a poll taken at randomly selected polling places after the citizens have placed their votes.
Gender gap
a consistent attitudinal pattern where women are more likely than men to express liberal attitudes and to support Democratic candidates.
Melting pot
the mixture of cultures, ideas, and peoples in the United States.
Minority majority
a reference to the impending status of White, Anglo-Saxon Americans, currently holding majority status.
Political culture
an overall set of values widely shared within a society.
Political ideology
a coherent set of values and beliefs about public policy.
Political participation
the activities used by citizens to influence political outcomes.
Political socialization
the process by which citizens acquire their knowledge, feelings, and evaluations of the political world.
Protest
a form of political participation designed to change policy through unconventional tactics.
Public opinion
the distribution of the population's beliefs about politics and issues.
Random digit dialing
phone numbers are dialed at random around the country.
Random sampling
a polling technique which is based on the principle that everyone has an equal probability of being selected as part of the sample.
Reapportionment
the reallocation of 435 seats in the House of Representatives based on changes in residency and population found in the census.
Sample
a small proportion of the population chosen as representative of the whole population.
Sampling error
the level of confidence involved in a sample result—the level is dependent on the size of the sample.
CHAPTER SEVEN THE MASS MEDIA AND THE POLITICAL AGENDA
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Beats
specific locations where news frequently occurs.
Broadcast media
one of two kinds of media, includes television and radio.
Chains
media conglomerates that control a large percentage of daily newspaper circulation and some television and radio stations as well.
High-tech politics
politics where technology has shaped political behavior and the political agenda.
Investigative journalism
the use of detective-like reporting methods to unearth scandals.
Mass media
media which reaches and influences both elites and the masses.
Media event
an event staged primarily for the purpose of being covered.
Narrowcasting
strategy of some broadcast channels that appeal to a narrow, rather than a broad, audience.
Policy agenda
the list of subjects or problems to which government officials and people outside of government closely associated with those officials are paying some serious attention at any given time.
Policy entrepreneurs
political activists who invest their political capital in an issue.
Press conferences
presidential meetings with the press.
Print media
one of two kinds of media, includes newspapers and magazines.
Sound bites
a portion of a speech aired on TV of fifteen seconds or less.
Talking head
a shot of a person's face talking directly into the camera.
Trial balloons
information leaked to the media to see what the political reaction will be.
CHAPTER EIGHT POLITICAL PARTIES
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Blanket primaries
nomination contests where voters are presented with a list of the candidates from all the parties and allows them to pick candidates from all parties.
Coalition
a set of individuals and groups supporting a political party.
Coalition governments
governments where smaller parties combine with larger parties to control half of the seats in the legislature.
Closed primaries
nomination contests where only people who have registered in advance with the party can vote.
Critical election
an election where each party's coalition of support begins to break up and a new coalition of forces is formed for each party.
Linkage institutions
institutions such as parties, elections, interest groups, and the media translate inputs from the public into outputs from policymakers.
National chairperson
the person responsible for taking care of the day-to-day activities and daily duties of the party.
National committee
a coalition of representatives from the states and territories charged with maintaining the party between elections.
National convention
the supreme power within each party, which meets every four years, writes the party platform, and nominates candidates for president and vice president.
New Deal coalition
the new coalition of forces (urban, unions, Catholics, Jews, the poor, southerners, African Americans, and intellectuals) in the Democratic party that was forged as a result of national economic crisis associated with the Great Depression.
Open primaries
nomination contests where voters can decide on election day whether they want to participate in the Democratic or Republican contest.
Party competition
the battle between the two dominant parties in the American system.
Party dealignment
when voters move away from both parties.
Party eras
periods during which there has been a dominant majority party for long periods of time.
Party identification
the self-proclaimed preference for one or the other party.
Party image
what voters know or think they know about what each party stands for.
Party machine
a particular kind of party organization that depends on both specific and material inducements for rewarding loyal party members.
Party realignment
process whereby the major political parties form new support coalitions that endure for a long period.
Patronage
one of the key inducements used by machines whereby jobs are given for political reasons rather than for merit or competence alone.
Political party
a team of men and women seeking to control the governing apparatus by gaining office in a duly constituted election.
Proportional representation
an electoral system where legislative seats are allocated on the basis of each party's percentage of the national vote.
Rational-choice theory
a theory that seeks to explain political processes and outcomes as consequences of purposive behavior, where political actors are assumed to have goals and who pursue those goals rationally.
Responsible party model
an ideal model of party organization recommending that parties provide distinct programs, encourage candidates to be committed to the party platform, intend to implement their programs, and accept responsibility for the performance of government.
Third parties
minor parties which either promote narrow ideological issues or are splinter groups from the major parties.
Ticket-splitting
voting with one party for one office and another for other offices.
Winner-take-all system
an electoral system where whoever gets the most votes wins the election.
CHAPTER NINE NOMINATIONS AND CAMPAIGNS
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Campaign strategy
the way candidates use scarce resources to achieve the nomination or win office.
Caucus
a meeting to determine which candidate delegates from a state party will support.
Direct mail
the use of targeted mailings to prospective supporters, usually compiled from lists of those who have contributed to candidates and parties in the past.
Federal Election Campaign Act
1974 legislation designed to regulate campaign contributions and limit campaign expenditures.
Federal Election Commission (FEC)
a bipartisan body charged with administering campaign finance laws.
Frontloading
states' decisions to move their presidential primaries and caucuses to earlier in the nomination season in order to capitalize on media attention.
Matching funds
money provided to qualifying presidential candidates from the
Presidential Election Campaign Fund, the amount of which is determined by the amount of contributions raised by the candidate.
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McGovern-Fraser Commission
a committee in the Democratic party charged with recommending changes in party rules to promote more representation of women and minorities in the delegate selection process.
National party convention
a meeting of the delegates from each state to determine the party's nominee for president.
National primary
a proposal by critics of the caucuses and presidential primaries systems who would replace these electoral methods with a nationwide primary held early in the election year.
Nomination
a party's official endorsement of a candidate for office.
Party platform
the party's statement of its goals and policies for the next four years.
Political Action Committee (PAC)
a legal entity formed expressly for the purpose of contributing money to candidates and influencing electoral outcomes.
Presidential Election Campaign Fund
money from the $3 federal income tax check-off goes into this fund, which is then distributed to qualified candidates to subsidize their presidential campaigns.
Presidential primaries
a state-level election to determine which candidate the state's delegates will support.
Regional primaries
a proposal by critics of the caucuses and presidential primaries to replace these electoral methods with a series of primaries held in each geographic region.
Selective perception
the act of paying the most attention to things that one already agrees with or has a predisposition towards.
Soft money
money raised by political parties for voter registration drives and the distribution of campaign material at the grass roots level, now banned at the national level.
Superdelegates
delegates to the Democratic Party's national convention who obtain their seats on the basis of their positions within the party structure.
527 groups
independent groups that seek to influence the political process but are not subject to contribution restrictions because they do not directly advocate the election of a particular candidate.
CHAPTER TEN ELECTIONS AND VOTING BEHAVIOR
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Civic duty
a belief in the obligation to vote.
Electoral college
the institution designated in the Constitution whereby a body of electors selects the president and vice president.
Initiative petition
direct democracy technique that allows proposed legislative items to be placed on a statewide ballot when enough signatures are obtained.
Legitimacy
widely shared belief that a democratic government was elected fairly and freely.
Mandate theory of elections
the belief that the election winner has a mandate to implement policy promises.
Motor Voter Act
this legislation requires states to let people register to vote at the same time they apply for a driver's license.
Policy voting
occurs when people base their choices on how close a candidate's issues positions are to their own issue preferences.
Political efficacy
the belief that ordinary people can influence government.
Referendum
direct democracy technique that allows citizens to approve or disapprove some legislative act, bond, issue, or constitutional amendment proposed by a state legislature.
Retrospective voting
voting theory that suggests that individuals who feel that they are better off as a result of certain policies are likely to support candidates who pledge to continue those policies, and those who feel worse off are inclined to support opposition candidates.
Suffrage
the legal right to vote.
Voter registration
a requirement that citizens register to vote before the election is held.
CHAPTER ELEVEN INTEREST GROUPS
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Actual group
a group composed of those in the potential group who are members of the interest group.
Amicus curiae briefs
"friend of the court" briefs filed by interest groups to inform the court of their position and to state how their welfare would be affected by a ruling.
Class action lawsuits
a technique used by interest groups which allows groups of people with similar complaints to combine their grievances into a single suit.
Collective good
something of value which cannot be withheld from individuals in the potential group.
Electioneering
helping sympathetic candidates get into office.
Elite theory
argues that because only a few groups have enough power to influence policy, power is concentrated into a few interlocking power centers.
Free-rider problem
a situation where individuals let others work to secure a collective good and then enjoy the benefit without contributing anything to the group effort.
Hyperpluralist theory
argues that too many groups are getting what they want at the expense of the unrepresented and that this behavior leads to incoherent public policy.
Interest groups
organizations where people with similar policy goals enter the political process to achieve those goals.
Lobbying
a communication by someone other than a citizen acting on his or her own behalf, directed to a governmental decision maker with the hope of influencing his or her decision.
Olson's law of large groups
suggests that the larger the group, the more difficult it will be to secure enough of the collective good to encourage participation.
Pluralist theory
argues that interest group activities provide additional representation and compete against each other to influence political outcomes.
Political action committees
a legal means for groups to participate in elections by contributing money.
Potential group
a group composed of all people who share some common interest.
Public interest lobbies
organizations that seek a collective good which does not only benefit their membership.
Right-to-work law
a state law that forbids the requirement of union membership as a condition of employment.
Selective benefits
these benefits are goods that a group can restrict to those who are members.
Single-issue groups
groups which have very narrow interests, shun compromise, and single-mindedly pursue goals.
Subgovernments
exclusive relationships composed of interest groups leaders, government agency personnel, and members of congressional committees who perform mutually beneficial services for each other at the public's expense.
Union shop
a rule established to prevent free-riders by requiring new employees to join the union where one has been granted bargaining rights.
CHAPTER TWELVE CONGRESS
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Bicameral legislature
a legislature that is divided into two chambers.
Bill
a proposed law, drafted in precise, legal language.
Casework
helping constituents as individuals cut through bureaucratic red tape to receive their rightful benefits.
Caucus
a grouping of members of Congress sharing some interest or characteristic.
Committee chairs
the most important influences on the congressional agenda; they schedule hearings, hire staff, appoint subcommittees, and manage committee bills.
Conference committee
a special committee formed when each chamber passes a bill in different forms, composed of members of each chamber who were appointed by each chamber's leaders to work out a compromise bill.
Filibuster
is unlimited debate, is unique to the Senate, and can only be ended by a vote for cloture by 60 members.
House Rules Committee
a committee unique to the House, which is appointed by the
Speaker of the House, reviews most bills coming from a House committee for a floor vote, and which gives each bill a rule.
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Incumbents
people who already hold office.
Joint committees
special committees composed of members from each chamber.
Legislative oversight
the process of monitoring the bureaucracy and its administration of policy.
Majority leader
the Speaker's principal partisan ally who is responsible for soliciting support for the party's position on legislation.
Minority leader
is the minority party's counterpart to the majority party's leadership.
Pork barrel
list of federal projects, grants, and contracts available to cities, businesses, colleges, and institutions.
Select committees
appointed for a specific purpose.
Seniority system
a system used until the 1970s where majority party members who had served on their committees the longest, regardless of party loyalty, mental state, or competence, were automatically appointed chair of the committee.
Speaker of the House
as mandated by the Constitution, is next in line after the vice president to succeed a president who is unable to fulfill his/her term and who presides over the House.
Standing committees
committees formed in each chamber to handle bills in different policy areas.
Whip
The majority or minority leader's principle tool for securing support for legislation and who lobby partisans for support.
CHAPTER THIRTEEN THE PRESIDENCY
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Cabinet
the group of presidential advisors who head the executive departments.
Council of Economic Advisers (CEA)
members advise the president on economic policy and prepare the Annual Report of the CEA.
Crisis
a sudden, unpredictable, and potentially dangerous event.
Impeachment
the political equivalent of an indictment for removing a discredited president.
Legislative veto
a clause which allows Congress to override the action of the executive.
National Security Council (NSC)
a committee that links the president's key foreign and military advisors.
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
responsible for preparing the president's budget and assessing the budgetary implications of legislative proposals.
Pocket veto
this occurs when Congress adjourns within 10 days after submitting a bill and the president takes no action to sign it or veto it.
Presidential coattails
where voters cast their ballots for congressional candidates of the president's party because those candidates support the president.
Twenty-fifth Amendment
passed in 1967, permits the vice president to become acting president in the event that the president is temporarily disabled.
Twenty-second Amendment
passed in 1951, limits presidents to two terms.
Veto
sending the legislation back to Congress with reasons for rejecting it.
War Powers Resolution
passed in 1973, requires presidents to consult with Congress prior to using military force and mandates the withdrawal of forces after sixty days unless Congress declares war or grants an extension.
Watergate
a political scandal involving President Nixon's abuse of his powers.
CHAPTER FOURTEEN THE CONGRESS, THE PRESIDENT, AND THE BUDGET
THE POLITICS OF TAXING AND SPENDING
Appropriations bill
bill passed annually to fund an authorized program.
Authorization bill
an act of Congress that establishes a discretionary government program or an entitlement, or that continues or changes such programs.
Budget
a policy document that allocates burdens (taxes) and benefits (expenditures).
Budget resolution
a bill setting limits on expenditures based on revenue projections, agreed to by both houses of Congress in April each year.
Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974
an act designed to reform the budgeting process by making Congress less dependent on the president's budget; established a fixed budget calendar and a budget committee in each house.
Congressional Budget Office (CBO)
research agency of Congress, responsible to it for providing analyses of budget proposals, revenue forecasts, and related information.
Continuing resolutions
laws that allow agencies to spend at the previous year's level.
Deficit
occurs when government spends more money than it receives in taxes in the fiscal year.
Entitlements
expenditures for which the total amount spent is not by congressional appropriation, but rather by rules of eligibility established by Congress.
Expenditures
money spent by the government in any one year.
Federal debt
all of the money borrowed by the government over the years that is still outstanding.
House Ways and Means Committee
responsible for originating all revenue bills.
Income tax
the portion of money individuals are required to pay to the government from the money they earned.
Incrementalism
the best predictor of this year's budget is last year's budget plus a little bit more.
Medicare
in 1965, this program was added to Social Security to provide hospital and physician coverage to the elderly.
Reconciliation
revisions of program authorizations to make the final budget meet the limits of the budget resolution, usually occurring toward the end of the budgetary process.
Revenues
money received by the government in any given year.
Senate Finance Committee
responsible for writing the tax code.
Sixteenth Amendment
passed in 1913, permits Congress to levy an income tax.
Social Security Act
passed to provide a minimal level of sustenance to older Americans.
Tax expenditures
revenue losses due to special exemptions, exclusions, and deductions.
Uncontrollable expenditures
result from policies that make some group automatically eligible for benefits.
CHAPTER FIFTEEN THE FEDERAL BUREAUCRACY
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Administrative discretion
authority of administrative actors to select among various responses to a given problem, especially when rules do not fit or more than one rule applies.
Bureaucracy
implementers of policy.
Civil service
promotes hiring on the basis of merit and establishes a nonpartisan government service.
Command-and-control policy
regulatory strategy where government sets a requirement and then enforces individual and corporate actions to be consistent with meeting the requirement.
Deregulation
the withdrawal of the use of governmental authority to control or change some practice in the private sector.
Executive orders
regulations originating in the executive branch.
Governmental corporations
provide services that could be handled by the private sector but that generally charge cheaper rates than a private sector producer.
GS (General Service) rating
assigned to each job in federal agencies, this rating helps to determine the salary associated with the position.
Hatch Act
passed in 1940, prohibits government workers from active participation in partisan politics.
Incentive system
regulatory strategy that rewards individuals or corporations for desired types of behavior, usually through the tax code.
Independent executive agencies
executive agencies that are not cabinet departments, not regulatory commissions, and not government corporations.
Independent regulatory commission
has responsibility for a sector of the economy to protect the public interest.
Iron triangles
refers to the strong ties among government agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees and subcommittees.
Merit principle
using entrance exams and promotion ratings for hiring workers.
Office of Personnel Management (OPM)
responsible for hiring for most agencies.
Patronage
a hiring and promotion system based on knowing the right people.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
passed in 1883, it created the federal Civil Service.
Policy implementation
the stage of policymaking between the establishment of a policy and the results of the policy for individuals.
Regulation
the use of governmental authority to control or change some practice in the private sector.
Senior Executive Service
the very top level of the bureaucracy.
Standard operating procedures
detailed rules written to cover as many particular situations as officials can anticipate to help bureaucrats implement policies uniformly.
Street-level bureaucrats
bureaucrats who are in constant contact with the public.
CHAPTER SIXTEEN THE FEDERAL COURTS
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Amicus curiae briefs
friend of the court briefs by nonlitigants who wish to influence the Court's decision by raising additional points of view and information not contained by briefs prepared by litigants' attorneys.
Appellate jurisdiction
given to a court where cases are heard on appeal from a lower court.
Class action suits
cases which permit a small number of people to sue on behalf of all other people similarly affected.
Courts of appeal
courts which have the power to review all final decisions of district courts, except in instances requiring direct review by the Supreme Court.
District courts
the entry point for most federal litigation.
Judicial activism
theory that judges should make bolder policy decisions to alleviate pressing needs, especially for those who are weak politically.
Judicial implementation
how and whether court decisions are translated into actual policy.
Judicial restraint
theory that judges should play minimal role in policymaking and leave policy decisions to the legislature.
Judicial review
the power of the courts to hold acts of Congress, and by implication the executive, in violation of the Constitution.
Justiciable disputes
cases that can be settled by legal methods.
Marbury v. Madison
the 1803 Supreme Court case that originated the notion of judicial review.
Opinion
a statement of the legal reasoning behind the decision.
Original intent
the theory that judges should determine the intent of the framers and decide in line with their intent.
Original jurisdiction
given to a court where a case is first heard.
Political questions
conflicts between the president and Congress.
Precedent
the way similar cases have been handled in the past is used as a guide to current decisions.
Senatorial courtesy
a tradition in which nominations for federal judicial positions are not confirmed when opposed by a senator of the president's party from the state in which the nominee is to serve or from the state of the nominee's residence.
Solicitor general
a presidential appointee who is in charge of the appellate court litigation of the federal government.
Standing to sue
litigants must have serious interest (sustained direct and substantial injury) from a party in a case.
Stare decisis
an earlier decision should hold for the case being considered.
Statutory construction
a procedure in which the legislature passes legislation that clarifies existing laws so that the clarification has the effect of overturning the court's decision.
Supreme Court
resolves disputes between and among states, maintains the national supremacy of law, ensures uniformity in the interpretation of national laws.
United States v. Nixon
1974 Supreme Court decision that required President Nixon to turn White House tapes over to the Courts.
CHAPTER SEVENTEEN ECONOMIC POLICYMAKING
...
Antitrust policy
government regulation of business to ensure competition and prevent monopoly (control of a market by one company).
Capitalism
an economic system in which individuals and corporations own the principal means of production, through which they seek to reap profits.
Collective bargaining
the right of workers to have labor union representatives negotiate with management to determine working conditions.
Consumer Price Index (CPI)
a government statistic that measures the change in the cost of buying a fixed basket of goods and services.
Federal Reserve System
created by Congress in 1913 to regulate the lending practices of banks and thus the money supply.
Fiscal policy
the government's decisions to tax, spend, and borrow, as reflected in the federal budget.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
government agency with broad regulatory powers over the manufacturing, contents, marketing and labeling of food and drugs.
Inflation
a government statistic that measures increases in the price of goods.
Keynesian economic theory
the theory emphasizing that government spending and deficits can help the economy weather its normal ups and downs. Proponents of this theory advocate using the power of government to stimulate the economy when it is lagging.
Labor union
an organization of workers intended to engage in collective bargaining.
Laissez-faire
a belief that government should not intervene in the economy.
Minimum wage
the legal minimum hourly wage for large employers.
Mixed economy
a system in which the government, while not commanding the economy, is still deeply involved in economic decisions.
Monetarism
economic theory that suggests that the supply of money is key to the nation's economic health.
Monetary policy
government decisions regarding the money supply, including the discount rates for bank borrowing, reserve requirements for banks, and trading of government securities.
Multinational Corporation
businesses with vast holdings in many countries.
National Labor Relations Act
passed by Congress in 1935, guarantees workers the right of collective bargaining; also known as the Wagner Act.
Protectionism
the economic policy of shielding an economy from exports.
Securities and Exchange Commission
the federal agency created during the New Deal that regulates stock fraud.
Supply-side economics
economic philosophy that holds that the key task for government economic policy is to stimulate the supply of goods, not their demand.
Unemployment rate
a government statistic that measures how many workers are actively seeking work but unable to find jobs.
World Trade Organization
international organization that regulates international trade.
CHAPTER EIGHTEEN SOCIAL WELFARE POLICYMAKING
...
Earned Income Tax Credit
a "negative income tax" that provides income to very poor individuals in lieu of charging them federal income taxes.
Entitlement programs
government benefits that certain qualified individuals are entitled by law to receive, regardless of need.
Feminization of poverty
the increasing concentration of poverty among women, especially unmarried women and their children.
Immigration
the movement of people to another country with the intention of remaining there.
Income distribution
the share of national income earned by various groups in the
United States.
...
Income
the amount of money collected between any two points in time.
Means-tested programs
government programs available only to individuals below a poverty line.
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act
the official name of the "welfare reform" law of 1996.
Poverty line
official statistic indicating what a family would need to spend to maintain an "austere" standard of living.
Progressive tax
takes a higher percentage from the rich than from the poor.
Proportional tax
takes the same percentage from rich and poor.
Regressive tax
takes a higher percentage from the poor than from the rich.
Simpson-Mazzoli Act
the Reagan-era law which provided amnesty to many immigrants and toughened border controls.
Social Security Act of 1935
created both the Social Security program and a national assistance program for poor children.
Social Security Trust Fund
the "bank account" into which Social Security contributions are "deposited" and used to pay out eligible recipients.
Social welfare policies
attempt to provide assistance and support to specific groups in society.
Temporary Assistance to Needy Families
once called "Aid to Families with
Dependent Children," this is the new name for public assistance to needy families.
...
Transfer payments
benefits from government where money is transferred from the general treasury to those in need.
Wealth
the amount already owned.
CHAPTER NINETEEN POLICYMAKING FOR HEALTH CARE AND THE ENVIRONMENT
...
Clean Air Act of 1970
landmark legislation that charged the Department of Transportation with the responsibility of reducing automobile emissions.
Endangered Species Act of 1973
legislation that required the government to actively protect each of hundreds of species listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, regardless of the economic effect on the surrounding towns or region.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
created in 1970, the government agency that is charged with administering various environmental laws.
Global warming
the slow rise in the atmospheric temperature of the earth.
Health maintenance organization (HMO)
a form of network health plan that limits the choice of doctors and treatments.
Medicaid
government program designed to provide health care for the poor.
Medicare
government program designed to provide health care for the elderly.
National health insurance
a program—that has been proposed in a variety of ways over the last few generations—to provide the financing, policies, and regulations to guarantee all or almost all Americans' medical health insurance.
Superfund
established by Congress in 1980, a fund devoted to cleaning up toxic waste supported by taxes on toxic waste.
Water Pollution Control Act of 1972
passed by Congress to control pollution in the nation's rivers and lakes.
CHAPTER TWENTY NATIONAL SECURITY POLICYMAKING
...
Arms race
one side's weaponry motivates the other side to procure more weaponry.
Balance of trade
the ratio of what a country pays for imports to what it earns from exports.
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
created after World War II to coordinate American information and data-gathering intelligence activities.
Cold war
where the U.S. and the Soviet Union were often on the brink of war.
Containment doctrine
called for the U.S. to isolate the Soviet Union to contain its advances by peaceful or coercive means.
Détente
a slow transformation from conflict thinking to cooperative thinking in foreign policy strategy designed to ease tensions between the superpowers and guarantee mutual security.
European Union (EU)
a transnational government composed of most European countries, that coordinates monetary, trade, immigration, and labor policies for their mutual benefit.
Foreign policy
involves making choices about relations with the rest of the world.
Interdependency
actions reverberate and affect other people's actions.
Isolationism
a policy that directs the U.S. to stay out of other nations' conflicts.
Joint Chiefs of Staff
composed of commanding officers of each of the services, plus a chair, are the president's military advisors.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
created in 1949 to combine military forces of the U.S., Canada, Western European nations, and Turkey.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
organization comprised of oil producing countries in the Middle East.
Secretary of defense
the president's main civilian defense advisor.
Secretary of state
a key advisor to the president on foreign policy.
Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
also known as "Star Wars," this plan proposed creating a global umbrella in space to destroy invading missiles.
Tariff
raises the price of an imported good to protect domestic business.
United Nations
an international organization created in 1945 where members agree to renounce war and respect human and economic freedoms.
CHAPTER TWENTY-ONE THE NEW FACE OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT
...
City manager
official appointed by an elected city council and given the responsibility of implementing policy decisions.
Council of governments
association of officials from various localities that facilitates discussion of mutual problems and planning joint, cooperative activities.
Dillon's Rule
initially enunciated by Judy John Dillon, states that local governments have only those powers that are explicitly given to them by the states.
Direct democracy
a method of policymaking in the U.S. unique to subnational governments where voters participate directly in policymaking.
Home rule
power of cities to write their own charters and to change them without permission from the state legislature.
Initiative
direct democracy technique that allows proposed constitutional amendments to be placed on a statewide ballot when enough signatures are obtained.
Lieutenant governor
an executive officer of state government, often elected by voters; typically presides over the state senate.
Line-item veto
power of governors to veto only certain parts of a bill while allowing the rest to pass into law.
Local charter
an organizational statement and grant of authority from the state to a local government.
Merit Plan
judicial selection process whereby the governor appoints the state's judges from a list of persons recommended by the state bar or a committee of jurists and other officials.
Recall
direct democracy technique that allows voters to remove an official from office prior to completion of an elected term.
Referendum
direct democracy technique that allows citizens to pass a bill originally proposed and approved in the state legislature.
Subnational governments
state and local governments.
Town meeting
a form of direct democracy where all voting-age adults in a community gather annually to make public policy.
cases involving the 1st amendment
schenck vs. us
gitlow vs. new york
...
cases involving the establishment clause
lemon vs. kurtzman
engle vs. vitale
...
impoundment
refusal of the president to spend money appropriated by congress for a specific program
5 principles of the constitution
popular soveringty
representtative gov't by indirect election
...
judicial review
...
checks and balances
...
separation of powers
...
4 policymaking institutions
legislative
execuitive
...
courts
...
bureaucracies
...
brown vs. board of ed
overturned plessy vs. ferguson
separate but equal is unconstitutional
...
unanimous vote
...
sparked civil rights
...
used to desegregate schools
...
cooper vs. aaron
states cannot nullify decesions of federal courts
mapp vs. ohio
illegally obtained material cannot be used against you in a court of law
no unreasonable search and seizures
...
gideon vs. wainwright
if you cannot afford an attorney, one will be provided for you
miranda vs. arizona
police must inform a suspect of their rights before questioning
established the miranda rights
...
terry vs. ohio
stop and frisks do not violate the constitution
us vs. nixion
the president is not above the law
texas vs. johnston
flag burning is a form of symbolic speech and is therefore protected by the first amendment
roe vs. wade
women's right to abortion is protected under the right to privacy of the 4th amendment
dc vs. heller
dc cannot take away the right of an individual to own a gun
protected by the 2nd amendment
...
citizens united vs. FEC
hard money to campaigns are to be regulated
all soft money is banned
...
what is an unfunded mandate
requires states to do certian thigs without providing any money
which case gave the federal government exensive power through the commerace clause
gibbons vs. ogden
what are the powers called that both the state and federal governments share
concurrent powers
what is a positive of federalism
allows states to experiment with different policies
virginia plan
proposed a national bicameral legislature that apportioned elected members based on each state's population
supremacy clause
the constitution is the supreme law of the land
which documents argues states had the right to nullify laws that they felt violated the constitution
virginia and kentucky resolutions
TRUE/ FALSE
...
intrest groups can give unlimited amounts of money to political campaigns
FALSE
TRUE/ FALSE
...
grassroots activism refers to attempts to persuade gov't officials by direct, personal contact
FALSE
what is a PAC
a political action committee
what is soft money
unregulated campaign money
what is a massive letter writing campaign an example of....
grassroots activism
what is demosclerosis
the inablity of the government to make any signifigant changes due to the power of intrest groups
what is party in the electorate
party identification among voters
unwritten constitution
not stated in the document but implied
formal ways to ammend the constitution
2/3 house and 2/3 senate
2/3 house and senate call a constitutional convention where 3/4 state legislatiors must agree
...
inflormal ways to ammend the constitution
judicial review
supreme court decisions
changes in society
new legislation
presidential actions
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCING GOVERNMENT IN AMERICA
...
Democracy
a means of selecting policymakers and of organizing government so that policy represents and responds to the public's preferences.
who/what/where/when/how of politics
who: the people
what: vote on policies and officials
where: voting booths
when: general elections
how: casting a ballot based on their opinions
4 linkage institutions
political parties
media
elections
lobbyists
what is not a federal aid to state governments
dual federalism
politics
process by which we select leaders and policies for them to focus on
Elite and class theory
argues that society is divided along class lines and that an upper-class elite rules on the basis of its wealth.
Government
institutions that make public policy for a society.
5 cornerstones of an ideal democracy
voting equality
effective participation
inclusion
citizen controlled agenda
enlightened understanding
Gross domestic product
the total value of all goods and services produced annually by the United States.
Hyperpluralism
argues that too many strong influential groups cripple the government's ability to make coherent policy by dividing government and its authority.
hyperpluralist theory
strong croups create a weak national governemt
cripples the national gov't ablility to make policy
John Locke's political philosophy
separation of church and state
liberalism
articles of confederation
weak central government
strong state and local governments
Linkage institutions
institutions such as parties, elections, interest groups, and the media, which provide a linkage between the preferences of citizens and the government's policy agenda.
Majority rule
weighing the desires of the majority in choosing among policy alternatives.
madisonian model of government
3 branches
checks and balances
eliminated tyranny and faction threats
marbury vs. madison
established jusicial review
judicial review
the power of the courts to review any other branch of government and determine it constitutionality
mcculloch vs. maryland
the constitution gives the federal governemnt certain implied powers
plessy vs. ferguson
separate but equal doctorine was constitutional
Minority rights
protecting the rights and freedoms of the minority in choosing among policy alternatives.
dredd scott vs. stanford
slaves were not people with rights
they belogned to their masters
Pluralist theory
argues that there are many centers of influence in which groups compete with one another for control over public policy through bargaining and compromise.
which is not a power held by the president
1. conduct foreign policy
2. tax citizens
3. grant clemency
4. command the armed forces
Policy agenda
the list of subjects or problems to which people inside and outside government are paying serious attention at any given time.
pluralist theory
many groups hold the power
which 3 authors wrote the federalist papers
john jay
alexender hamilton
james madison
elite theory
the upper class or wealthy controls everything
bush vs. gore
controversal 2000 election that made the final decision on flordia recounts
lawrence vs. texas
state's banning of sodomony is unconstitutional
declaration of independence
stated the 13 colonies were a free and independent nation
enumerated powers
collect taxes
regulate foreign trade
coin money
establish post offices and courts
reserved powers
establish the election proccess
provide public health
regulate interstate commerace
establish public safety and education
concurrent powers
tax
establush bankrupcy laws
3 supreme laws of the land
constitution
us treaties
federal statues
preamble
We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
3 obligations each state has under the constitution
privileges and immunity clause
full faith and credit clause
extradition
TRUE/ FALSE
...
senators were orginally chosen by state legislature
TRUE
TRUE/ FALSE
...
the billo of rights was a part of the constitution before it was ratified
FALSE
constitutional vs. legislative courts
established by article III of the constitution
created by the senate
district courts
handle civil and criminal cases
trial courts
courts of appeals
13 courts
handles appeals of federal agencies
appeals from district courts
supreme court
when us is the side asking for review
involving of constitutional matters
involving disputes between 1 or more states
who determines the size of the judiciary branch
congress
what was the 3/5ths compromise
a compromise that said each slave would be counted as 3/5ths a person in population counts
solicitor general
files amicus curie breifs
picks the us' position on cases
reviews cases
amicus curie breifs
past records of the trial from lower courts to make new decesions
friends of the courts
TRUE/ FALSE
...
mcculloch vs. maryland formed the constitutional basis for the restriction of federal power
FALSE
TRUE/ FALSE
...
since the 1980's the supreme court has increasingly sided with states in disputes with the federal gov't
TRUE
10th amendment
any power not given to the federal government is left to the states and the people
block grants
spcific money given to states for specific programs
categorical grants
federal money recieved by the states
criminal law
dealing with criminal ofenses and punishments
civil law
dealing with private matters usually based on contracts
us attorney general
lawyer of the united states where the us is the party being sued in the supreme court
senatorial courtesy
when the president nominates someone they ask the senators from that state what they think of the nominee beforehand
majority opinion
voting when a majority of justices agree
lemon vs. kurtzman
established the 3 part lemon test
make sure church and state stay equal
school funds cannot be used to further any religion
tinker vs. des moines
wearin black armbands to protest the vietnam war is free speech
students rights are not shed at the school gates
2 faucets of freedom of assembly
freedom to assemble
freedom to petition
key types of inequality in america
race
gender
social class
2 conceptions of inequality
oppurtunity
responsibility and civic duty
civil rights act of 1964
banned racial discrimination
equal employment oppurtunities
ended segregation of public places
ways the south tried to keep african americans from voting
poll taxes
grandfather clause
litteracy tests
jim crow laws
dissenting opinion
written by justices who disagree with the majority
liberals
younger
women
minorities
favor social programs
spend less on the military and more on the poor
conservatives
older
wealthier
fundamentalists
less taxes
need to be tougher on crime
free market
conventional political participation
voting
working on campaigns
contacting local officials
working on community issues
issues at the constitutional convention
how should the states be represented
how sould we count slaves
how sould we count slaves
4th article of the constitution
relationships among states
they should interact with one another
concurring opinion
agress with the majority opinion but for different reasons
5th article of the constitution
how to ammend the constitution
2/3 house+ 2/3 senate
3/4...
6th article of the constitution
national supremacy
the constitution and court findings are the supreme laws of the land
7th article of the constitution
ratifying the document
9 out of 13 original states
house
no filibuster
germaneness
435 members
2 yr terms
at least 25 yrs old
senate
filibuster
no germaneness
100 members
6 yr terms
at least 30 yr olds
grassroot techniques
lawn signs
door to door
telephone calls
james madison
father of the constitution
co author of the federalist papers
proposed the bill of rights
4th president
stare decisis
reliance on past court findings to make new ones
precedent
using past court decisions to rule on new ones
judicial activism
power of a judge to further justice in terms of personal or civil liberties
judicial restraint
decisions made by other branches of government must stand in the courts
civil liberties
freedoms of individuals to exercise customary rights without unwarranted government interfearence
barron vs. baltimore
the bill of rights doesn't apply to the states
gitlow vs. new york
the bill of rights does apply to the states
incorporation doctorine
every us citizen is guarenteed the rights in the bill of rights
engle vs. vitale
any type of prayer in school is unconstitutional
affirmative action
action or policies favoring the minorities or those who suffer from discrimination
political party
an organization centered around similar intrests with specific issues in mind whose main goal is to get elected
albany plan of union
prerevolutionary war
1st attempt of colonist at self government
open primary
members of that political party, the opposing parties, and independents can vote
ticket splitting
voting for canidates of more than one political party on the same ballot
party machine
the providing of tangenital incentives in return for political support
how to sheild supreme court justices from politics
lifetime appointments
their salaries cannot be decreased
closed primary
only members of that political party can vote
3rd article of the constitution
judicial branch
9 justices
lifetime appointments
2nd article of the constitution
execuitive branch
4yr terms
at least 35 yrs old
elected by the electoral college
commander in cheif of the armed forces
veto legislation
head of their political party
article 1 of the constitution
legislative branch
article 1, section 8: necessary and proper clause
redistricting
redrawing of congressional districts after each 10 yr. census
reapportionment
the giving out of the 435 seats in the house after each 10 yr census
20th amendment
outgoing and ingoing presidential procedures
president is inagurated at 12 pm
modified electoral college
president and vice president are voted for together on the same ballot
front loading
choosing a date early on in the primary/ caucus calendar
gridlock
when elected officials cannot reach a decision
reasons for not voting/ registering
time conflicts
difficulty of registration
don't care
no intrest in politics
out of town
impacts on voter turnout
education/ income
age
gender
race/ethnicity
religion
political socialization
types of parties
governmental: office holders
organizational; who work on campaigns
party in the electorate; voters
electorate
people who are eligable to vote
writ of habeus corpus
ordering of a prisioner before a judge for a trial
national parties
congressional; congress memebers
presidential; party in control of the white house
party and judiciary; justice party affiliation
full faith and credit clause
gov't acts in the intrest of the whole nation
linkage institutions
connect the government to the people
media
interest groups
war powers act of 1973
canceled the gulf of tonklin resolution
must give congress 48hr notice
could only station troops for 60 days oversees unless granted by congress
shay's rebellion
made the founders realize the articles of confederation are not working
great compromise
house would be represented by population and the senate would be represented equally
tennents of american democracy
personal liberty
civil society
political equality
popular consent
majority rule
natural popular soverginty
gulf of tonklin resolutin
congress gave the president a blank chek to deal with vietnam
federalist no. 10
problems of factions
warned aganist political parties
federalist no. 51
separation of powers
checks and balances
elements of the constitution
separation of powers
checks and balances
federalism
republicanism
5 principles of the constitution
all men are created equal
endowed with unalienable rights
gov't was created to protect out rights
consent of the governed
gov't was created to protect out rights
alter or abolish the gov't if it gains too much power
2/3
override a presidential veto
senate approval of a treaty
impeachment trial in the senate
constitutional amendment proposal
27th amendment
any congressional salary changes are in affect after the next election
26th amendment
lowers the voting age from 21 to 18
21st amendment
repealed the ban on alcohol
22nd amendment
limits the president to 2 terms
motor voter act
could register to vote when you get your drivers liscense
party realignmet
shift in political affiliation
secular realignment
political affiliation shifts due to demographic changes
1st amendment
freedom of speech
religion
press
petition
assemble
party in the electorate
political party an individual is registered with
litigation
the act of suing
stamp act congress
list of violations of the british on America
5th amendment
right to due proccess
no double jeopardy
social contract theory
we agree we want to be governed
Omb
office of management and budget
8th amendment
no cruel and unusual punishment
no excessive bail
epa
environmental protection agency
cbo
congressional budget office
gao
general accounting office
scotus
supreme court of the united states
potus
president of the united states
17th amendment
direct election of senators
2nd amendment
right to bear arms
3rd amendment
no quartering of troops in a time of peace
4th amendment
protects aganist unreasonable search and seizures
6th amendment
right to a fair and speedy trial
7th amendment
right to a trial by jury
25th amendment
line of succession
president
vice president
speaker of the house
president pro tempore of the senate
secretary of state
secretary of treasury
all cabinet departments in order of creation date
amendments that expaned the right to vote
15th: black males could vote
19th:women's suffreage
23rd: people of dc can now vote
26th: lowerd the voting age from 21 to 18
9th amendment
just because powers are not stated, doesnt mean they arent there
10th amendment
powers not stated previously belong to the states and the people
11th amendment
any state can be sued by a us citizen
12th amendment
established new electoral college procedures
13th amendment
abolished and prohibits slavery
14th amendment
gives every citizen due proccess and equal protection under law
15th amendment
gave black males the right to vote
16th amendment
established the federal income tax
18th amendment
prohibition of alcohol
19th amendment
women's suffrage
23rd amendment
citizens of dc can now vote in federal elections
democracy
a system of selecting policymakers and of organizing government so that policy represents and responds to the public's preferences
public goods
goods, such as clean air and clean water, that everyone must share
political participation
all the activities use by citizens to influence the selection of political leaders or the policies they pursue. voting is an example
policymaking system
the process by which policy comes into being and evolves over time. people's interest, problems, and concerns create political issues for government policymakers
policy agenda
the issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and other people actually involved in politics at any given point in time
policymaking institution
the branches of government charged with taking action on political issues. today, political scientists add bureaucracy as another example
minority rights
a principle of traditional democratic theory that guarantees rights to those who do not belong to majorities
political structure
an overall set of values widely shared within a society
hyperpluralism
a theory of government and politics contending that groups are so strong that government is weakened
pluralist theory
a theory of government and politics emphasizing that politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies
gross domestic product
the sum total of the value of all the goods and services produced in a nation
policy gridlock
a condition that occurs when no coalition is strong enough to form a majority and establish policy. the result is that nothing may get done
elite and class theory
a theory of government and politics contending that societies are divided along class lines and that an upper-class will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organization
representation
a basic principle of traditional democratic theory that describes the relationship between the few leaders and the many followers
majority rules
a fundamental principle of traditional democratic theory. when choosing among alternatives, the will of over half the votes should be followed
public policy
a choice of government makes in response to a political issue. a policy is a course of action with regard to some problem
political issue
an issue that arises when people disagree about a problem and how to fix it
linkage institution
the political channels through which people's concerns become political issues on the policy agenda. elections, political parties, interest groups, and the media are all examples
single-issue groups
groups that have a narrow interest, tend to dislike compromise, and often draw membership from people new to politics
politics
the process by which we select our governmental leaders and what policies these leaders pursue. produces authoritative decisions about public issues
government
the institutions and processes through which public policies are made for a society
natural law
God's or nature's law that defines right from wrong and is higher than human law.
separation of powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law.
checks and balances
Constitutional grant of powers that enables each of the three branches of government to check some acts of the others and therefore ensure that no branch can dominate
divided government
Governance divided between the parties, especially when one holds the presidency and the other controls one or both houses of Congress.
direct primary
Election in which voters choose party nominees.
initiative
Procedure whereby a certain number of voters may, by petition, propose a law or constitutional amendment and have it submitted to the voters.
referendum
Procedure for submitting to popular vote measures passed by the legislature or proposed amendments to a state constitution.
recall
Procedure for submitting to popular vote the removal of officials from office before the end of their term.
judicial review
The power of a court to refuse to enforce a law or a government regulation that in the opinion of the judges conflicts with the U.S. Constitution or, in a state court, the state constitution.
writ of mandamus
Court order directing an official to perform an official duty.
impeachment
Formal accusation by the lower house of a legislature against a public official, the first step in removal from office.
executive order
Directive issued by a president or governor that has the force of law.
executive privilege
The power to keep executive communications confidential, especially if they relate to national security.
impoundment
Presidential refusal to allow an agency to spend funds that congress authorized and appropriated.
Federalism
Government authority shared by national and local governments
"necessary and proper" clause
section of the Constitution allowing Congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to its duties, and which has permitted Congress to exercise powers not specifically given to it (enumerated) by the Constitution
nullification
the doctrine that a state can declare null and void a federal law that, in the state's opinion, violates the Constitution
dual federalism
Doctrine holding that the national government is supreme in its sphere, the states are supreme in theirs, and the two spheres should be kept separate
police power
state power to enact laws promoting health, safety, and morals
initiative
process that permits voters to put legislative measures directly on the ballot
referendum
procedure enabling voters to reject a measure passed by the legislature
recall
procedure whereby voters can remove an elected official from office
grants-in-aid
money given by the national government to the states
categorical grants
Federal grants for specific purposes, such as building an airport
conditions of aid
terms set by the national government that states must meet if they are to receive certain federal funds
mandates
terms set by the national government that states must meet whether or not they accept federal grants
waiver
a decision by an administrative agency granting some other part permission to violate a law or rule that would otherwise apply to it
political culture
The widely shared beliefs, values, and norms about how citizens relate to government and to one another.
social capital
Democratic and civic habits of discussion, compromise, and respect for differences, which grow out of participation in voluntary organizations.
natural rights
The rights of all people to dignity and worth; also called human rights.
democratic consensus
Widespread agreement on fundamental principles of democratic governance and the values that undergird them.
majority rule
Governance according to the expressed preferences of the majority.
13th Amendment
Specifically bans slavery in the United States https://o.quizlet.com/i/KDLc3nF1QyFh1nJ9gMk0XQ.jpg
Black Codes
Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by southern states following the Civil War https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1255/1401417032_1966ce9fa7.jpg
14th Amendment
guarantees equal protection and due process of the law to all US citizens https://farm3.staticflickr.com/2270/2423051333_b4cf1edae2.jpg
Equal Protection Clause
Section of the 14th Amendment that guarantees all citizens receive "equal protection of the law" https://farm4.staticflickr.com/3597/3413987789_b607473327.jpg
15th Amendment
Specifically enfranchised newly freed slaves https://o.quizlet.com/wUlM5l5ZG4qUHCQl8Fex3g.jpg
Jim Crow Laws
Laws enacted by southern states that required segregation in public schools, theatres, hotels, and other public accomodations https://farm3.staticflickr.com/2160/2515673214_d8188c3c2f.jpg
Poll Tax
A tax levied in many southern states and localities that had to be paid before an eligible voter could cast a ballot https://o.quizlet.com/FrjFjvobzLoIbJcPY4MzLg.jpg
Grandfather Clause
Voter qualification provision in many southern states that allowed only those whose grandfathers had voted before Reconstruction could vote https://farm1.staticflickr.com/143/374653598_22d0512132.jpg
Suffrage Movement
The drive for voting rights for women that took place in the United States from 1890 to 1920 https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1108/717223647_5c85678773.jpg
popular sovereignty
A belief that ultimate power resides in the people.
American dream
The widespread belief that the United States is a land of opportunity and that individual initiative and hard work can bring economic success.
capitalism
An economic system characterized by private property, competitive markets, economic incentives, and limited government involvement in the production, distribution, and pricing of goods and services.
suffrage
The right to vote.
Equal Rights Amendment
Proposed amendment that says races and sexes will not be discriminated against https://farm4.staticflickr.com/3250/3054041911_0a68c394e6.jpg
Strict Scrutiny
A heightened standard of review used by the Supreme Court to determine the Constitutional validity of a challenged practice https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1288/553097910_cce45f3c67.jpg
Intermediate Scrutiny
A type of scrutiny that says laws that treat people differently - often by age - can be reasonable. https://o.quizlet.com/TJ2KuSrBfUqQbZYFp.rHBA.png
Rational Basis
A standard developed by the courts to test the constitutionality of a law; when applied, a law is constitutional as long as it meets a reasonable government interest. https://o.quizlet.com/RbOFxB2duqb8LWhbOZUMeg.jpg
Equal Pay Act of 1963
Requires employees to pay men and women equally for equal work https://farm3.staticflickr.com/2270/2423051333_b4cf1edae2.jpg
Title IX
Bars educational institutions that receive federal funds from discriminating against female students https://o.quizlet.com/OajtUJRVXK2yuUBv23REZg.jpg
Affirmative Action
Policies designed to give special attention to minorities https://farm9.staticflickr.com/8349/8272206292_19053fee0e.jpg
monopoly
Domination of an industry by a single company that fixes prices and discourages competition; also, the company that dominates the industry by these means.
antitrust legislation
Federal laws (starting with the Sherman Act of 1890) that try to prevent a monopoly from dominating an industry and restraining trade.
political ideology
A consistent pattern of beliefs about political values and the role of government.
liberalism
A belief that government can and should achieve justice and equality of opportunity.
conservatism
A belief that limited government ensures order, competitive markets, and personal opportunity.
19th Amendment
Amendment to the Constitution that guaranteed women the right to vote
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Legislation passed by Congress to outlaw segregation in public facilities and discrimination in employment, education, and voting; created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
socialism
An economic and governmental system based on public ownership of the means of production and exchange.
libertarianism
An ideology that cherishes individual liberty and insists on minimal government, promoting a free market economy, a noninterventionist foreign policy, and an absence of regulation in moral, economic, and social life.
De Jure Discrimination
Racial segregation that is the direct result of a law or official policy
De Facto Discrimination
Racial discrimination that results from practice rather than the law
faction
A term the founders used to refer to political parties and special interests or interest gropus.
pluralism
A theory of government that holds that open, multiple, and competing groups can check the asserted power by any one group.
interest group
A collection of people who share a common interest or attitude and seek to influence government for specific ends. ________ _______s usually work within the framework of government and try to achieve their goal through tactics such as lobbying.
movement
A large body of people interested in a common issue, idea ,or concern that is of continuing significance and who are willing to take action. _________s seek to change attitudes or institutions, not just policies.
open shop
A company with a labor agreement under which union membership cannot be required as a condition of employment.
closed shop
A company with a labor agreement under which union membership can be a condition of employment.
free rider
An individual who does not join a group representing his or her interests yet receives the benefit of the group's influence.
nongovernmental organization (NGO)
A nonprofit association or group operating outside of government that advocates and pursues policy objectives.
collective action
How groups form and organize to pursue their goals or objectives, including how to get individuals and groups to participate and cooperate. The term has many applications in the various social sciences such as political science, sociology, and economics.
public choice
A specific course of action taken by government to achieve a public goal.
Federal Register
An official document, published every weekday, which lists the new and proposed regulations of executive departments and regulatory agencies.
amicus curiae brief
Literally, a "friend of the court" brief, filed by an individual or organization to present arguments in addition to those presented by the immediate parties to a case.
lobbyist
A person who is employed by and acts for an organized interest group or corporation to influence policy decisions and positions in the executive and legislative branches.
lobbying
Engaging in activities aimed at influencing public officials, especially legislators, and the policies they enact.
revolving door
Employment cycle in which individuals who work for governmental agencies that regulate interests eventually end up working for interest groups or businesses with the same policy concern.
issue network
Relationships among interest groups, congressional committees and subcommittees, and the government agencies that share a common policy concern.
political action committee (PAC)
The political arm of an interest group that is legally entitled to raise funds on a voluntary basis from members, stockholders, or employees to contribute funds to candidates or political parties.
leadership PAC
A PAC formed by an office holder that collects contributions from individuals and other PACs and then makes contributions to other candidates and political parties.
bundling
A tactic in which PACs collect contributions from like-minded individuals (each limited to $2,000) and present them to a candidate or political party as a "bundle," thus increasing the PAC's influence.
soft money
Unlimited amounts of money that political parties previously could raise for party-building purposes. Now largely illegal except for limited contributions to state and local parties for voter registration and get-out-the-vote efforts.
quid pro quo
Something given with the expectation of receiving something in return.
independent expenditure
The Supreme Court has ruled that individuals, groups, and parties can spend unlimited amounts in campaigns for or against candidates as long as they operate independently from the candidates. When an individual, group, or party does so, they are making an _________ ____________.
issue advocacy
Promoting a particular position or an issue paid for by interest groups or individuals but not candidates. Much _____ ________ is often electioneering for or against a candidate, and until 2004 had not been subject to any regulation.
527 organization
A political group organized under section 527 of the IRS Code that may accept and spend unlimited amounts of money on election activities so long as they are not spent on broadcast ads run in the last 30 days before a primary or 60 days before a general election where a clearly identified candidate is referred to and a relevant electorate is targeted.
political party
an organization that seeks political power by electing people to office so that its positions and philosophy become public policy
nonpartisan election
an election in which candidates are not selected or endorsed by political parties and party affiliation is not listed on ballots
patronage
the dispensing of government jobs to persons who belong to the winning political party
honeymoon
the period at the beginning of a new president's term during which the president enjoys generally positive relations with the press and Congress, usually lasting about six months
caucus
a meeting of local party members to choose party officials or candidates for public office and to decide the platform
party convention
a meeting of party delegations to vote on matters of policy and in some cases to select party candidates for public office
direct primary
an election in which voters choose party nominees
open primary
a primary election in which any voter, regardless of party, may vote
crossover voting
voting by a member of one party for a candidate of another party
closed primary
a primary election in which only one persons registered in the party holding the primary may vote
minor party
a small political party that persists over time, is often composed of ideologies on the right or the left, or is centered on a charismatic candidate. such a party is also called a third party
proportional representation
an election system in which each party running receives the proportion of legislative seats corresponding to its proportion of the vote
winner-take-all system
an election system in which the candidate with the most votes wins
realigning election
an election during periods of expanded suffrage and change in the economy and society that proves to be a turning point, redefining the agenda of politics and the alignment of voters within parties
divided government
governance divided between the parties, as when one holds the presidency and the other controls one or both houses of Congress
national party convention
a national meeting of delegates elected in primaries, caucuses, or state conventions who assemble once every four years to nominate candidates for president and vice president, ratify the party platform, elect officers, and adopt rules
party identification
an affiliation with a political party that most people acquire in childhood
party registration
the act of declaring party affiliation; required by the states when one registers to vote
dealignment
weakening of partisan preferences that point to a rejection of both major parties and a rise in the number of independents
soft money
money raised in unlimited amounts for party-building purposes. Now largely illegal except for limited contributions to state or local parties for voter registration and get-out-the-vote efforts.
hard money
Political contributions given to a party, candidate, or interest group that are limited in amount and fully disclosed. Raising such limited funds is harder than raising unlimited funds, hence the term's name.
party-independent expenditures
spending by political party committees that is independent of the candidate. the spending occurs in relatively few competitive contests and is often substantial
political socialization
the process by which we develop our political attitudes, values, and beliefs (schools and families mostly)
attitudes
an individual's propensity to perceive, interpret, or act toward a particular object in a particular way
selective exposure
individuals choosing to access media with which they agree or avoiding media with which they disagree
attentive public
citizens who follow public affairs carefully
public opinion
the distribution of individual preferences for or evaluations of a given issue, candidate, or institution within a specific population
random sample
in this type of sample, every individual has a known and equal chance of being selected
margin of error
the range of percentage points in which the sample accurately reflects the population
universe
the group of people whose preferences we try to measure by taking a sample; also called population
intensity
a measure of how strongly an individual holds a particular opinion
latency
political opinions that are held but not yet expressed
manifest opinion
a widely shared and consciously held view, such as support for abortion rights or for homeland security
salience
an individual's belief that an issue is important or relevant to him or her
voter registration
a system designed to reduce voter fraud by limiting voting to those who have established eligibility to vote by submitting the proper documents, including proof of residency
general election
elections in which voters elect officeholders
primary election
elections in which voters determine party nominees
presidential election
elections held in years when when the president is on the ballot
midterm election
elections held midway between presidential elections
turnout
the proportion of the voting-age public that votes, sometimes defined as the number of registered voters that vote
party identification
an informal and subjective affiliation with a political party that most people acquire in childhood
candidate appeal
how voters feel about a candidate's background, personality, leadership ability, and other personal qualities
prospective issue voting
voting based on what a candidate pledges to do in the future about an issue if elected
retrospective issue voting
holding incumbents, usually the president's party, responsible for their records on issues, such as the economy or foreign policy
winner-take-all system
an election system in which the candidate with the most votes wins
single-member district
electoral district in which voters choose one representative or official
proportional representation
an election system in which each party running receives the proportion of legislative seats corresponding to its proportion of the vote
electoral college
electoral system used in electing the president and vice president, in which voters vote for electors pledged to cast their ballots for a particular party's candidates
safe seat
an elected office that is predictably won by one party or the other, so the success of that party's candidate is almost taken for granted
coattail effect
the boost that candidates may get in an election because of the popularity of candidates above them on the ballot, especially the president
candidate appeal
tendency in elections to focus on the personal attributes of a candidate, such as his or her strengths, weaknesses, background, experience, and visibility
national tide
inclination to focus on national issues, rather than local, in an election campaign. the impact of a national tide can be reduced by the nature of the candidates on the ballot who may have differentiated themselves from their party or its leader if the tide is negative, as well as competition in the election
name recognition
incumbents have an advantage over challengers in election campaigns because voters are more familiar with them, and incumbents are more recognizable
caucus
meeting of local party members to choose party officials or candidates for public office and to decide the platform
national party convention
a national meeting of delegates elected in primaries, caucuses, or state conventions who assemble once every four years to nominate candidates for president and vice president, ratify the party platform, elect officers, and adopt rules
Federal Election Commission
a commission created by the 1974 amendments to the Federal Election Campaign Act to administer election reform laws. It consists of six commissioners appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate. Its duties include overseeing disclosure of campaign finance information, public funding of presidential elections, and enforcing contribution limits
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act
largely banned party soft money, restored long-standing prohibition on corporations and labor unions for using general treasury funds for electoral purposes, and narrowed the definition of issue advocacy
soft money
money raised in unlimited amounts by political parties for party-building purposes. Largely illegal except for limited contributions to state or local parties for voter registration and get-out-the-vote efforts
hard money
political contributions given to a party candidate, or interest group that are limited in amount an fully disclosed. Raising such limited funds is harder than raising unlimited funds, hence the term "hard money"
issue advocacy
promoting a particular position or issue paid for by interest groups or individuals but not candidates. Often electioneering for or against a candidate, avoiding words like "vote for," and until 2004 had not been subject to any regulation
527 organizations
interest groups organized under section 527 of the Internal Revenue Code may advertise for or against candidates. If their source of funding is corporations or unions, they have some restrictions on broadcast advertising
independent expenditures
money spent by individuals or groups not associated with candidates to elect or defeat candidates for office
mass media
means of communication that reach the public, including newspapers and magazines, radio, television (broadcast, cable, and satellite), films, recordings, books, and electronic communication
news media
media that emphasize the news
political socialization
the process by which we develop our political attitudes, values, and beliefs
selective exposure
the process by which individuals screen out messages that do not conform to their own biases
selective perception
the process by which individuals perceive what they want in media messages
horse race
a close contrast; by extension, any contest in which the focus is on who is ahead and by how much rather than on substantive differences between the candidates
constituents
The residents of a congressional district or state.
reapportionment
The assigning by Congress of congressional seats after each census. State legislatures reapportion state legislative districts.
redistricting
The redrawing of congressional and other legislative district lines following the census, to accommodate population shifts and keep districts as equal as possible in population.
gerrymandering
The drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent.
safe seat
An elected office that is predictably won by one party or the other, so the success of that party's candidate is almost taken for granted.
incumbent
The current holder of elected office.
bicameralism
The principle of a two-house legislature
enumerated powers
The powers explicitly given to Congress in the Constitution.
Speaker
The presiding officer in the House of Representatives, formally elected by the House but actually selected by the majority party.
party caucus
A meeting of the members of a party in a legislative chamber to select party leaders and develop party policy. Called a conference by the Republicans.
majority leader
The legislative leader selected by the majority party who helps plan party strategy, confers with other party leaders, and tries to keep members of the party in line.
minority leader
The legislative leader selected by the minority party as spokesperson for the opposition.
whip
Party leader who is the liaison between the leadership and the rank-and-file in the legislature.
closed rule
A procedural rule in the House of Representatives that prohibits any amendments to bills or provides that only members of the committee reporting the bill may offer amendments.
open rule
A procedural rule in the House of Representatives that permits floor amendments within the overall time allocated to the bill.
president pro tempore
Officer of the Senate selected by the majority party to act as chair in the absence of the vice president.
hold
A procedural practice in the Senate whereby a senator temporarily blocks the consideration of a bill or nomination.
filibuster
A procedural practice in the Senate whereby a senator refuses to relinquish the floor and thereby delays proceedings and prevents a vote on a controversial issue.
cloture
A procedure for terminating debate, especially filibusters, in the Senate.
senatorial courtesy
Presidential custom of submitting the names of prospective appointees for approval to senators from the states in which the appointees are to work.
standing committee
A permanent committee established in a legislature, usually focusing on a policy area.
special or select committee
A congressional committee created for a specific purpose, sometimes to conduct an investigation.
joint committee
A committee composed of members of both the House of Representatives and the Senate; such committees oversee the Library of Congress and conduct investigations.
earmarks
Special spending projects that are set aside on behalf of individual members of Congress for their constituents.
seniority rule
A legislative practice that assigns the chair of a committee or subcommittee to the member of the majority party with the longest continuous service on the committee.
conference committee
Committee appointed by the presiding officers of each chamber to adjust differences on a particular bill passed by each in different form.
delegate
An official who is expected to represent the views of his or her constituents even when personally holding different views; one interpretation of the role of the legislator.
trustee
An official who is expected to vote independently based on his or her judgment of the circumstances; one interpretation of the role of the legislator.
logrolling
Mutual aid and vote trading among legislators
attentive public
Those citizens who follow public affairs carefully.
discharge petition
Petition that, if signed by a majority of the members of the House of Representatives, will pry a bill from committee and bring it to the floor for consideration
rider
A provision attached to a bill-to which it may or may not be related-in order to secure its passage.
pocket veto
A veto exercised by the president after Congress has adjourned; if the president takes no action for ten days, the bill does not become law and is not returned to Congress for a possible override.
override
An action taken by Congress to reverse a presidential veto, requiring a two-thirds majority in each chamber.
committee hearing
committees collect and analyze information in the early stages of legislative policymaking
floor debate
takes place on the floor of the chamber and all of the members can discuss the merits of the bill before the vote.
Parliamentary system
A system of government in which the legislature selects the prime minister or president
Presidential ticket
The joint listing of the presidential and vice presidential candidates on the same ballot as required by the Twelfth Amendment
Vesting clause
The president's constitutional authority to control most executive functions
Treaty
A formal, public agreement between the United States and one or more nations that must be approved by two-thirds of the Senate
Executive agreement
A formal agreement between the U.S. president and the leaders of other nations that does not require Senate approval
Congressional-Executive agreement
A formal agreement between the U.S. president and the leaders of other nations that requires approval by both houses of Congress
Recess appointment
Presidentail appointment made without Senate confirmation during Senate recess
Veto
A formal decision to reject a bill passed by Congress
Pocket veto
A formal decision to reject a bill passed by Congress after it adjourns
Take care clause
The constitutional requirement that presidents take care that the laws are faithfully executed, even if they disagree with the purpose of those laws
Inherent powers
Powers that grow out of the very existance of government
State of the Union address
The president's annual statement to Congress and the nation
Impeachment
A formal accusation against the president or another public official
Executive privilege
The right to keep executive communications confidential, especially if they relate to national security
Executive orders
Formal orders issued by the president to direct action by the federal bureaucracy
Impoundment
A decision by the president not to spend money appropriated by Congress, now prohibited under federal law
Line item veto
Presidential power to strike specific items from a spending bill without vetoing the entire package; declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court
Signing statements
A formal document that explains why a president is signing a particular bill into law
Chief of staff
The head of the White House staff
Executive Office of the President
The cluster of presidential staff agencies that help the president carry out his responsibilities
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
A presidential staff agency that serves as a clearinghouse for budgetary requests and management improvements for government agencies
Cabinet
The advisory council for the president, consisting of the heads of the executive departments, the vice president, and a few other officials selected by the president
Presidential support score
The percentage of times a president wins key votes in Congress
Mandate
A president's claim of broad public support
Rally point
A rise in public approval of the president that follows a crisis as American's "rally 'round the flag" and the chief executive
judicial review
The power of a court to refuse to enforce a law or government regulation that in the opinion of the judges conflicts with the U.S. Constitution or, in a state court, the state constitution.
adversary system
A judicial system in which the court of law is a neutral arena where two parties argue their differences.
criminal law
A law that defines crimes against the public order.
civil law
A law that governs relationships between individuals and defines their legal rights.
justiciable dispute
A dispute growing out of an actual case or controversy and that is capable of settlement by legal methods.
defendant
In a criminal action, the person or party accused of an offense.
plea bargain
Agreement between a prosecutor and a defendant that the defendant will plead guilty to a lesser offense to avoid having to stand trial for a more serious offense.
public defender system
Arrangement whereby public officials are hired to provide legal assistance to people accused of crimes who are unable to hire their own attorneys.
original jurisdiction
The authority of a court to hear a case "in the first instance."
appelate jurisdiction
The authority of a court to review decisions made by lower courts.
court of appeals
A court with appellate jurisdiction that hears appeals from the decisions of lower courts.
precedent
A decision made by a higher court such as a circuit court of appeals or the Supreme Court that is binding on all other federal courts.
writ of habeas corpus
A court order requiring explanation to a judge why a prisoner is being held in custody.
senatorial courtesy
Presidential custom of submitting the names of prospective appointees for approval to senators from the states in which the appointees are to work.
judicial restraint
Philosophy proposing that judges should interpret the Constitution to reflect what the framers intended and what its words literally say.
judicial activism
Philosophy proposing that judges should interpret the Constitution to reflect current conditions and values.
stare decisis
The rule of precedent, whereby a rule or law contained in a judicial decision is commonly viewed as binding on judges whenever the same question is presented.
writ of certiorari
A formal writ used to bring a case before the Supreme Court.
docket
The list of potential cases that reach the Supreme Court.
amicus curiae brief
Literally, a "friend of the court" brief, filed by an individual or organization to present argument in addition to those presented by the immediate parties to a case.
opinion of the Court
An explanation of a decision of the Supreme Court or any other appellate court.
dissenting opinion
An opinion disagreeing with the majority in a Supreme Court ruling.
concurring opinion
An opinion that agrees with the majority in a Supreme Court ruling but differs on the reasoning.
bureaucracy
A form of organization that operates through impersonal, uniform rules and procedures.
bureaucrat
A career government employee.
department
Usually the largest organization in government; also the highest rank in federal hierarchy.
independent agency
A government entity that is independent of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches.
independent regulatory commission
A government agency or commission with regulatory power whose independence is protected by Congress.
government corporation
A government agency that operates like a business corporation, created to secure greater freedom of action and flexibility for a particular program.
Senior Executive Service
Established by Congress in 1978 as a flexible, mobile corps of senior career executives who work closely with presidential appointees to manage government.
spoils system
A system of public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends.
merit system
A system of public employment in which selection and promotion depend on demonstrated performance rather than on political patronage.
Office of Personnel Management (OPM)
Agency that administers civil service laws, rules, and regulations.
Hatch Act
Federal statute barring federal employees from active participation in certain kinds of politics and protecting them from being fired on partisan grounds.
implementation
The process of putting a law into practice through bureaucratic rules or spending.
administrative discretion
Authority given by Congress to the federal bureaucracy to use reasonable judgment in implementing the laws.
regulations
The formal instructions that government issues for implementing laws.
rule-making process
The formal process for making regulations.
uncontrollable spending
The portion of the federal budget that is spent on programs, such as Social Security, that the president and Congress are unwilling to cut.
entitlement program
Programs such as unemployment insurance, disaster relief, or disability payments that provide benefits to all eligible citizens.
indexing
Providing automatic increases to compensate for inflation.
oversight
Legislative or executive review of a particular government program or organization.
central clearance
Review of all executive branch testimony, reports, and draft legislation by the Office of Management and Budget to ensure that each communication to Congress is in accordance with the president's program.
Policy gridlock
where each interest uses its influence to thwart policies it opposes so that no coalition forms a majority to establish policy.
Policy impacts
the effects a policy has on people and problems.
Policymaking institutions
institutions such as Congress, the presidency, and the courts established by the Constitution to make policy.
Policymaking system
institutions of government designed to respond to each other and to the priorities of the people by governmental action.
Political culture
an overall set of values widely shared within a society.
Political issue
this arises when people disagree about a problem or about public policy choices made to combat a problem.
Political participation
the ways in which people get involved in politics.
Politics
determines whom we select as our government leaders and what policies they pursue; in other words, who gets what, when, and how.
Public goods
things that everyone can share.
Public policy
a choice that government makes in response to some issue on its agenda.
Representation
the relationship between the leaders and the followers.
Single-issue groups
groups so concerned with one matter that their members cast their votes on the basis of that issue only.
CHAPTER TWO THE CONSTITUTION
...
Anti-Federalists
opposed the new Constitution, feared the new Constitution would erode fundamental liberties, and argued that the new Constitution was a class-based document serving the economic elite.
Articles of Confederation
the document that outlined the voluntary agreement between states and was adopted as the first plan for a permanent union of the United States.
Bill of Rights
the first ten Amendments to the Constitution passed after ratification specifically protecting individual liberties to fulfill promises made by the Federalists to the Anti-Federalists in return for their support.
Checks and balances
each branch requires the consent of the others for many of its decisions.
Connecticut Compromise
the plan adopted at the Constitutional Convention to provide for two chambers in Congress, one representing states equally and the other representing states on the basis of their share of the population.
Consent of the governed
people must agree on who their rulers will be.
Constitution
a nation's basic law creating institutions, dividing power, and providing guarantees to citizens.
Declaration of Independence
the document used by the signers to announce and justify the Revolutionary War and which was specifically designed to enlist the aid of foreign nations in the revolt.
Equal Rights Amendment
was first proposed in 1923, passed by Congress in 1972, but was not ratified by three-fourths of the states; this amendment mandated equality of rights under the law regardless of gender.
Factions
groups of people, currently known as political parties or interest groups, who arise as a result of unequal distribution of wealth to seize the reins of government in their own interest.
Federalist Papers
articles written to convince others to support the new constitution.
Federalists
argued for ratification of the Constitution by writing the Federalist Papers; included Madison, Hamilton, and Jay.
Judicial review
the courts have the power to decide whether the actions of the legislative and executive branches of state and national governments are in accordance with the Constitution.
Limited government
clear restrictions on what rulers could do; this safeguards natural rights.
Marbury v. Madison
Judicial review was established in this 1803 Supreme Court case.
Natural rights
these are rights to which people are entitled by natural law, including life, liberty, and property.
New Jersey Plan
a plan by some of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention to provide each state with equal representation in Congress.
Republic
a system based on the consent of the governed where power is exercised by representatives of the public.
Separation of powers
each branch of government would be independent of the others.
Shays' Rebellion
a series of armed attacks on courthouses to prevent judges from foreclosing on farms.
U.S. Constitution
the document where the foundations of U.S. government are written, providing for national institutions that each have separate but not absolute powers.
Virginia Plan
a plan by some of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention to provide each state with a share of congressional seats based on its share of the population.
Writ of habeas corpus
this enables people who are detained by authorities to secure an immediate inquiry and reasons why they have been detained.
CHAPTER THREE FEDERALISM
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Block grants
broad program grants given more or less automatically to states and communities, which exercise discretion in how the money is spent.
Categorical grants
grants that can be used only for specific purposes or categories of state and local spending.
Cooperative federalism
where state and the national government responsibilities are mingled and blurred like a marble cake; powers and policies are shared.
Devolution
transferring responsibility for policies from the federal government to state and local governments.
Dual federalism
where states and the national government each remain supreme within their own spheres of power, much like a layer cake.
Elastic clause
the statement in the Constitution which says that Congress has the power to make all laws necessary and proper for carrying out its duties.
Enumerated powers
powers of Congress found in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution.
Extradition
the Constitution requires each state to return a person charged with a crime in another state to that state for trial or imprisonment.
Federalism
a system of shared power between two or more levels of government.
Fiscal federalism
the pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system.
Formula grants
a type of categorical grant where states and local governments do not apply for a grant but are given funds on the basis of a formula.
Full faith and credit
Article IV of the Constitution requires states to provide reciprocity toward other states' public acts, records, and civil judicial proceedings.
Gibbons v. Ogden
the 1824 Supreme Court case which further expanded Congress' power to regulate interstate and international commerce by defining commerce very broadly to incorporate every form of commercial activity.
Implied powers
powers beyond Congress' enumerated powers which ensure that it can carry out its duties.
Intergovernmental relations
the term used to describe the entire set of interactions among national, state, and local governments.
McCulloch v. Maryland
the 1819 Supreme Court case, which established the supremacy of the national government over the states, included both enumerated and implied powers of Congress.
Privileges and immunities
the Constitution prohibits states from discriminating against citizens of other states.
Project grant
categorical grants awarded on the basis of competitive applications.
Supremacy clause
Article VI of the Constitution states that the supreme law of the land is the Constitution, the laws of the national government, and treaties.
Tenth Amendment
specifies that powers not delegated to the national government are reserved for the state government or the people.
Unitary government
a system where all power resides in the central government.
CHAPTER FOUR CIVIL LIBERTIES AND PUBLIC POLICY
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Bill of Rights
the first ten amendments to the Constitution.
Civil Liberties
legal and constitutional protections against government infringement of political liberties and criminal rights.
Commercial Speech
communication in the form of advertising.
Cruel and unusual punishment
Eighth Amendment prohibits such punishment.
Eighth Amendment
forbids cruel and unusual punishment, although it does not define this phrase.
Establishment clause
First Amendment prohibits government from establishing a religion; is the basis for separation of church and state.
Exclusionary rule
prohibits government from including illegally obtained evidence in a trial.
Fifth Amendment
prohibits government from forcing individuals to testify against themselves.
First Amendment
establishes freedom of religion, press, speech, and assembly.
Fourteenth Amendment
prohibits states from denying equal protection of the laws.
Free exercise clause
government is prohibited in the First Amendment from interfering in the practice of religion.
Incorporation Doctrine
legal concept under which the Supreme Court has nationalized the Bill of Rights by making most of its provisions applicable to the states through the Fourteenth Amendment.
Libel
publication of false or malicious statements that damage someone's reputation.
Plea bargaining
an actual bargain struck between the defendant's lawyer and the prosecutor to the effect that the defendant will plead guilty to a lesser crime (or fewer crimes) in exchange for the state's promise not to prosecute the defendant for a more serious (or additional) crime.
Prior restraint
government instrument to prevent material from being published.
Probable cause
police must have a good reason to arrest someone.
Right to privacy
a contrived right from unstated liberties in the Bill of Rights.
Search warrant
written authorization from a court specifying the area to be searched and what the police are searching for.
Self-incrimination
testifying against oneself.
Sixth Amendment
designed to protect individuals accused of crimes; includes the right to counsel, the right to confront witnesses, and the right to a speedy and public trial.
Symbolic Speech
political actions instead of words.
Unreasonable searches and seizures
obtaining evidence without a good reason.
CHAPTER FIVE CIVIL RIGHTS AND PUBLIC POLICY
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Affirmative action
a policy designed to give special consideration to those previously discriminated against.
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
strengthened protections of individuals with disabilities by requiring employers and public facilities to make "reasonable accommodations" and prohibiting employment discrimination against people with disabilities.
Civil rights
extending citizenship rights to participate to those previously denied them.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
forbids discrimination in public accommodations and facilities.
Comparable worth
equal pay for equal worth.
Equal protection of the laws
provided by the Fourteenth Amendment mandating that all people be protected by the law.
Equal Rights Amendment
proposal that equality of rights under the law not be denied on the account of sex.
Fifteenth Amendment
provides the right to vote for Blacks.
Fourteenth Amendment
prohibits states from denying equal protection of the laws.
Nineteenth Amendment
provides women with the right to vote.
Poll Taxes
taxes levied on the right to vote designed to hurt poor Blacks.
Suffrage
the legal right to vote.
Thirteenth Amendment
abolished slavery and involuntary servitude.
Twenty-fourth Amendment
prohibited poll taxes in federal elections.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
a policy designed to reduce the barriers to voting for those suffering discrimination.
White Primary
practice where only Whites could vote in primaries.
CHAPTER SIX PUBLIC OPINION AND POLITICAL ACTION
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Census
a count of the American population conducted every ten years.
Civil disobedience
a form of unconventional participation designed to consciously break a law thought to be unjust.
Demography
the science of human populations.
Exit poll
a poll taken at randomly selected polling places after the citizens have placed their votes.
Gender gap
a consistent attitudinal pattern where women are more likely than men to express liberal attitudes and to support Democratic candidates.
Melting pot
the mixture of cultures, ideas, and peoples in the United States.
Minority majority
a reference to the impending status of White, Anglo-Saxon Americans, currently holding majority status.
Political culture
an overall set of values widely shared within a society.
Political ideology
a coherent set of values and beliefs about public policy.
Political participation
the activities used by citizens to influence political outcomes.
Political socialization
the process by which citizens acquire their knowledge, feelings, and evaluations of the political world.
Protest
a form of political participation designed to change policy through unconventional tactics.
Public opinion
the distribution of the population's beliefs about politics and issues.
Random digit dialing
phone numbers are dialed at random around the country.
Random sampling
a polling technique which is based on the principle that everyone has an equal probability of being selected as part of the sample.
Reapportionment
the reallocation of 435 seats in the House of Representatives based on changes in residency and population found in the census.
Sample
a small proportion of the population chosen as representative of the whole population.
Sampling error
the level of confidence involved in a sample result—the level is dependent on the size of the sample.
CHAPTER SEVEN THE MASS MEDIA AND THE POLITICAL AGENDA
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Beats
specific locations where news frequently occurs.
Broadcast media
one of two kinds of media, includes television and radio.
Chains
media conglomerates that control a large percentage of daily newspaper circulation and some television and radio stations as well.
High-tech politics
politics where technology has shaped political behavior and the political agenda.
Investigative journalism
the use of detective-like reporting methods to unearth scandals.
Mass media
media which reaches and influences both elites and the masses.
Media event
an event staged primarily for the purpose of being covered.
Narrowcasting
strategy of some broadcast channels that appeal to a narrow, rather than a broad, audience.
Policy agenda
the list of subjects or problems to which government officials and people outside of government closely associated with those officials are paying some serious attention at any given time.
Policy entrepreneurs
political activists who invest their political capital in an issue.
Press conferences
presidential meetings with the press.
Print media
one of two kinds of media, includes newspapers and magazines.
Sound bites
a portion of a speech aired on TV of fifteen seconds or less.
Talking head
a shot of a person's face talking directly into the camera.
Trial balloons
information leaked to the media to see what the political reaction will be.
CHAPTER EIGHT POLITICAL PARTIES
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Blanket primaries
nomination contests where voters are presented with a list of the candidates from all the parties and allows them to pick candidates from all parties.
Coalition
a set of individuals and groups supporting a political party.
Coalition governments
governments where smaller parties combine with larger parties to control half of the seats in the legislature.
Closed primaries
nomination contests where only people who have registered in advance with the party can vote.
Critical election
an election where each party's coalition of support begins to break up and a new coalition of forces is formed for each party.
Linkage institutions
institutions such as parties, elections, interest groups, and the media translate inputs from the public into outputs from policymakers.
National chairperson
the person responsible for taking care of the day-to-day activities and daily duties of the party.
National committee
a coalition of representatives from the states and territories charged with maintaining the party between elections.
National convention
the supreme power within each party, which meets every four years, writes the party platform, and nominates candidates for president and vice president.
New Deal coalition
the new coalition of forces (urban, unions, Catholics, Jews, the poor, southerners, African Americans, and intellectuals) in the Democratic party that was forged as a result of national economic crisis associated with the Great Depression.
Open primaries
nomination contests where voters can decide on election day whether they want to participate in the Democratic or Republican contest.
Party competition
the battle between the two dominant parties in the American system.
Party dealignment
when voters move away from both parties.
Party eras
periods during which there has been a dominant majority party for long periods of time.
Party identification
the self-proclaimed preference for one or the other party.
Party image
what voters know or think they know about what each party stands for.
Party machine
a particular kind of party organization that depends on both specific and material inducements for rewarding loyal party members.
Party realignment
process whereby the major political parties form new support coalitions that endure for a long period.
Patronage
one of the key inducements used by machines whereby jobs are given for political reasons rather than for merit or competence alone.
Political party
a team of men and women seeking to control the governing apparatus by gaining office in a duly constituted election.
Proportional representation
an electoral system where legislative seats are allocated on the basis of each party's percentage of the national vote.
Rational-choice theory
a theory that seeks to explain political processes and outcomes as consequences of purposive behavior, where political actors are assumed to have goals and who pursue those goals rationally.
Responsible party model
an ideal model of party organization recommending that parties provide distinct programs, encourage candidates to be committed to the party platform, intend to implement their programs, and accept responsibility for the performance of government.
Third parties
minor parties which either promote narrow ideological issues or are splinter groups from the major parties.
Ticket-splitting
voting with one party for one office and another for other offices.
Winner-take-all system
an electoral system where whoever gets the most votes wins the election.
CHAPTER NINE NOMINATIONS AND CAMPAIGNS
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Campaign strategy
the way candidates use scarce resources to achieve the nomination or win office.
Caucus
a meeting to determine which candidate delegates from a state party will support.
Direct mail
the use of targeted mailings to prospective supporters, usually compiled from lists of those who have contributed to candidates and parties in the past.
Federal Election Campaign Act
1974 legislation designed to regulate campaign contributions and limit campaign expenditures.
Federal Election Commission (FEC)
a bipartisan body charged with administering campaign finance laws.
Frontloading
states' decisions to move their presidential primaries and caucuses to earlier in the nomination season in order to capitalize on media attention.
Matching funds
money provided to qualifying presidential candidates from the
Presidential Election Campaign Fund, the amount of which is determined by the amount of contributions raised by the candidate.
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McGovern-Fraser Commission
a committee in the Democratic party charged with recommending changes in party rules to promote more representation of women and minorities in the delegate selection process.
National party convention
a meeting of the delegates from each state to determine the party's nominee for president.
National primary
a proposal by critics of the caucuses and presidential primaries systems who would replace these electoral methods with a nationwide primary held early in the election year.
Nomination
a party's official endorsement of a candidate for office.
Party platform
the party's statement of its goals and policies for the next four years.
Political Action Committee (PAC)
a legal entity formed expressly for the purpose of contributing money to candidates and influencing electoral outcomes.
Presidential Election Campaign Fund
money from the $3 federal income tax check-off goes into this fund, which is then distributed to qualified candidates to subsidize their presidential campaigns.
Presidential primaries
a state-level election to determine which candidate the state's delegates will support.
Regional primaries
a proposal by critics of the caucuses and presidential primaries to replace these electoral methods with a series of primaries held in each geographic region.
Selective perception
the act of paying the most attention to things that one already agrees with or has a predisposition towards.
Soft money
money raised by political parties for voter registration drives and the distribution of campaign material at the grass roots level, now banned at the national level.
Superdelegates
delegates to the Democratic Party's national convention who obtain their seats on the basis of their positions within the party structure.
527 groups
independent groups that seek to influence the political process but are not subject to contribution restrictions because they do not directly advocate the election of a particular candidate.
CHAPTER TEN ELECTIONS AND VOTING BEHAVIOR
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Civic duty
a belief in the obligation to vote.
Electoral college
the institution designated in the Constitution whereby a body of electors selects the president and vice president.
Initiative petition
direct democracy technique that allows proposed legislative items to be placed on a statewide ballot when enough signatures are obtained.
Legitimacy
widely shared belief that a democratic government was elected fairly and freely.
Mandate theory of elections
the belief that the election winner has a mandate to implement policy promises.
Motor Voter Act
this legislation requires states to let people register to vote at the same time they apply for a driver's license.

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