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BCOR12 Exam 1
Terms in this set (22)
Which naturalist synthesized a concept of natural selection independently of Darwin?
Catastrophism (the regular occurance of geological or meterological disturbances was Curvier's attempt to explain ____
the fossil record
What was the prevailing notion prior to the time of Lyell and Darwin?
Earth is a few thousand years old, and populations are unchanging.
james Hutton viewed Hadrian's Wall as:
evidence that processes such as erosion are slow, and the Earth must be very old
Both ancestral birds and ancestral mammals shared a common ancestor that was terrestriaal. Today, penguins (birds) and seals (mammals) have forelimbs adapted for swimming. Which terms best describe the relationship of the bones in the forelimbs of penguins and seals, and which term best describes the flippers?
Over evolutionary time, mancy cave dwelling organisms have lost their eyes. Tapeworms have lost their digestive systems. Whales have lost their huind limbs. How can natural selection account for these losses?
Under particular circumstances that persisted for long periods, each of these structures presented greater costs than benefits.
What consistently requires a small population as a precondition for its occurrence?
The historical high incidence of deafness on Martha's Vineyard illustrates:
the founder effect
Which of the following statements about species are most correct?
1. Biological species are defined by reproductive isolation
2. Biological species are the model used for grouping extinct forms of life.
3. The biological species is the largest unit of population in which successful reproduction is possible.
1 and 3
A defining characteristic of sympatric speciation is
the appearance of new species in the midst of old ones
Among known plant species, which of these have been the two most commonly occurring phenomena that have led to the origin of new species?
1. allopatric speciation
2. sympatric speciation
3. sexual selection
2 and 4
A common feature shared in both allopatric and sympatric speciation
barriers to gene flow occur that isolate sub-populations from each other
According to the concept of punctuated equilibrium, the "sudden" appearance of a new species in the fossil record means that
Speciation occurred rapidly in geologic time
What gas was the least abundant in Earth's early atmosphere, prior to 2 billion years ago?
In their laboratory simulations of the early Earth, Miller and Urey observed the abiotic synthesis of:
The half life of carbon-14 is about 5,730 years. A fossil that has one-eighth the proportion of carbon 14 to carbon 12 compared to that of living creature is about how many years old?
An early consequence of the release of oxygen gas by bacterial photosynthesis was to
cause iron in ocean water and terrestrial rocks to rust
The correct sequence of the taxonomic levels from most to least comprehensive
kingdon, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
When using a cladistic approach to systematics, what is most important for classification?
shared derived characters
which is the most true?
1. A phylogram shows inferred evolutionary distance between taxa
2. A cladogram shows the topology of an evolutionary tree
3. A phylogram shows the topology of an evolutionary tree
4. a cladogram shows inferred evolutionary distance between taxa
1, 2, 3
Which of the following would not contribute to allopatric speciation?
extensive gene flow between the populations
5 premises for Descent with Modification
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